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METHODS OF TEACHING AND THE LEARNING OF CHEMISTRY IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

METHODS OF TEACHING AND THE LEARNING OF CHEMISTRY IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

COVER PAGE                      –              –              –              –              –              –              –              –

CERTIFICATION                 –              –              –              –              –              –              –              I

DEDICATION                      –              –              –              –              –              –              –              II

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS –              –              –              –              –              –              III

ABSTRACT                           –              –              –              –              –              –              –              IV

TABLE OF CONTENTS      –              –              –              –              –                    –       V-VII

LIST OF TABLE    –              –              –              –              –              –              –              –              X

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1          Background to the Study –           –              –              –              –              –              1

1.2          Statement of the Problem –        –              –              –              –              –              5

1.3          Purpose of the Study-   –              –              –              –              –              –              6

1.4          Significance of the Study-             –              –              –              –              –              7

1.5          Research Questions –     –              –              –              –              –              –              8

1.6          Delimitation of the Study-            –              –              –              –              –              8

1.7          Limitation of the Study –               –              –              –              –              –              9

1.8          Definition of Operational Terms-              –              –              –              –              9

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE    –        –                 –          10

 

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD

3.1          Area of the Study –                          –              –              –              –              –              –              26

3.2          Research Design –                            –              –              –              –              –              –              27

3.3          Population of the Study –                             –              –              –              –              –              27

3.4          Sample and Sampling technique –             –              –              –              –              27

3.5          Instrument for Data Collection –                –              –              –              –              28

3.6          Validation of the Instrument –    –              –              –              –              –              28

3.7          Administration of Instrument –  –              –              –              –              –              28

3.8          Scoring of the Instrument –         –              –              –              –              –              30

3.9          Method of Data Analysis –            –              –                              –              –              39

CHAPTER FOUR:  DATA PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

4.1          Data Presentation Analysis-        –              –              –              –              –              40

4.2          Discussion of Findings-                  –              –              –              –              –              43

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATION AND CONCLUSION

5.1          Summary             –              –              –              –              –              –              –                   45

5.2          Recommendations –      –              –              –              –              –              –              50

5.3          Conclusion          –              –              –              –              –              –              –     52

Reference-         —             –              –              –              –              –              –                  58

Appendices

 

Abstract

This study was carried out to investigate the methods of teaching and the learning of Chemistry in secondary schools. The population of the study consisted of all the senior secondary two (2) chemistry students in all the thirteen (13) secondary schools in the study area totaling six hundred and twenty (620) students. The study adopted survey research design. Simple random sampling technique was employed to select the five (5) public secondary schools and one hundred and eighty (180) students.

The instrument used for data collection was questionnaire. The data collected was analyzed using simple percentage statistical method. The result of the findings revealed that demonstration method of teaching Chemistry will bring about very effective learning among the students. The study also revealed that guided-inquiry methods of teaching when applied properly by the teachers will Influence the learning process positively in secondary schools in NsitUbium Local Government Area.

 

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1          Background to the Study

The primary purpose of teaching at any level of education is to bring a fundamental change in the learner to facilitate the process of knowledge transmission, teachers should apply appropriate teaching methods that best suit specific objectives and level exit outcomes.

Moreover, in the traditional epoch, many teaching practitioners widely applied teacher-centered methods to impart knowledge to learners comparative to student-centered methods.

 

Until today, questions about the effectiveness of teaching methods on student learning. Have consistently raised considerable interest in the field of educational research. Moreover, research on teaching and learning constantly endeavour to examine the extent to which.

 

Different teaching methods enhance growth in students learning. Teaching involves bringing about or at least facilitating desirable changes in learners.

 

However, effective teaching requires the teacher to step out of the realm of personal experience and step into the world of the learners. It is the learner who must be engage for learning to occur, the learner is the one who must take the commitment to learn.

In a single lesson therefore, the teacher can employ more than one method to facilitate learning. The success of every method depends on the caliber of the teacher and his professional experience in the field of teaching. Studies have shown that coupled with appropriate instructional materials, right choice of methods facilitate learning achievement to a large extent. This applies at all levels of education and particularly secondary school which deals with foundation of learning and development.

 

There are many definitions of teaching method by different authors.

According to Oyekan (2014), teaching methodology is concerned with what method techniques or approach. Individuals or group of teachers select and use in actual classroom situation. Some of the methods that are applicable to secondary Schools level of education. Thus, this include discussion method, Supervised Activity method, Activity method. Inquiry method, Games method, Excursion method, Storytelling method. Pictorial method and inquiry method.

A successful teaching is a product of effective and efficient teaching process. Vin-Mbah (2012) cited South and Laslett (1993) and Oyekan (1994). Who described teaching as an all-purpose profession engaged in human resource development for individual and economic growth.

 

Teaching is also as an attempt to help someone acquire or change, some skill, attitude, knowledge, idea or appreciation. In other words, the teacher’s task is to create or influence desirable changes in behaviour, or in tendencies toward behaviour in his students.

 

Effective teaching involves informing and explaining stimulating, direction, guiding, administrating, identifying what to learn, method of learning, problems, evaluating, reporting, recording, classroom management, socialization and school-community relationship among others.

 

Methodology therefore, refers to the processes and techniques a teacher of either nursery or primary education uses to transmit facts, skills, information and knowledge to the learners so as to facilitate the accomplishment of the set objectives.

This implies that what the teacher intends to achieve at the end of the lesson should be in line with the selected method. The study therefore sought to find out the influence of teaching methods and students’ academic performance in Chemistry in secondary schools in Nsit Ubium Local Government Area.

 

METHODS OF TEACHING AND THE LEARNING OF CHEMISTRY IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

1.2          Statement of the Problem

Many methods of teaching exist in education. All the strategies are meant to make teachers succeed in their bid to disseminate knowledge. However, little are considered on some factors that are necessary before selecting the appropriate methods. Also the methods used in teaching the young ones are not effective for their teaching and learning and this negate their academic performance.

Having a sound foundation at the formative stage of a child to a large extent portends quality primary education and later secondary education.

 

Right from preprimary school, child’s interest, learning outcomes and attitudes are significantly determined by teacher use of appropriate methods. Thus, in view of the significance of teacher as facilitator of learning through use of relevant methods, the study investigated the impact of discussion, cooperative, inquiry, inquiry, lecture and conventional methods on students’ learning achievements in the rudiments of Chemistry

Obviously, teaching at any level of education has the sole purpose of ensuring that all learners can acquire information and apply those skills.

 

Therefore, it is incumbent upon all educators to not only know their teaching style so that teaching has a two-fold purpose where teachers teach and students learn. Consequently, knowing how your students learn and what strategies best fit your classroom and school are fundamental in the process of learning. As a result, the question that arises in education is what those effective teaching methods are.

 

1.3             Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to find out the impact of methods of teaching and the learning of Chemistry in secondary schools in NsitUbium Local Government Area. Specifically, the study sought to;

  1. determine the influence of demonstration method of teaching in teaching and learning of Chemistry in secondary schools
  2. determine the influence of guided inquiry method of teaching in teaching and learning of Chemistry in secondary schools

 

1.4    Significance of the Study

The result of this findings will be beneficial to educators, students and the government in the following ways;

  1. The findings of the study will provide to teachers among others information on most useful methods in facilitating learning at secondary school level.
  2. Findings will be useful to the in-service secondary school teachers in pedagogy application and as well contribute to knowledge of pre-service teachers.
  3. The findings will serve as feedback to educational stakeholders, proprietors/proprietresses, government and the education sector particularly Inspectors of education and school heads on the methods most applicable to pre-primary school level.
  4. The study will provide basis for further investigation by future researchers for scaling up and generalizing.
  5. The study will reveal to teachers the best method that stimulate students’ sense of curiosity and interest in learning the subject.

 

1.4          Research Questions

In order to guide the study the following research questions were formulated to guide the study.

  1. To what extent does demonstration method of teachingaffect the learning of Chemistry in secondary schools?
  2. To what extent does guided inquiry method of teaching affect the learning of Chemistry in secondary schools?

 

1.7   Delimitation of the Study

The study was restricted to examine teaching methods on academic performance of students in Chemistry in secondary schools in NsitUbium Local Government Area.

The study focuses on discussion method, cooperative, lecture, and inquiry method and its impact in the teaching of Chemistry in the study Area.

 

1.6          Operational Definitions of Terms

Teaching Methods: In this study, it implies the principles and methods of instruction

Methods: In brief, it is a way of doing something, especially in a systematic way, it implies an orderly logical arrangement (usually in steps).

Academic Performance: In brief, refers to how students deal with their studies and how they cope with different task given to them by their teachers.

Inquiry method:  In brief, refers to the type of teaching method. In which the teacher is the principal actor while the learners watch with the intention to act later.

 

 

CHAPTER TWO

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

The chapter presents the review of related literature of other authors that are related to this study.

2.1          The Concept of Methods Teaching

Specifically, teaching methods is defined as a way of carrying actual teaching in the classroom (Ndirangu 2007). Teaching method refers to the variety of ways in which a learning task is managed to facilitate the learning process (Kimweri 2004).

Moreover, teaching methods are patterns of teacher behavior that occur either simultaneously or in sequence in a verified way. Choosing specific teaching methods that best achieves course objectives is one of the most important decisions a teacher faces.

 

Knowing what methods are available and what objectives each method is best suited for, help teachers make this decision more easily. Most people, when asked about teaching methods, start by identifying two main types of instruction-lecture and discussion which are on the opposite ends with many exciting possibilities in between.

 

Furthermore, the methods of teaching are dictated by the medium of instruction for example, where English is used, the method of instruction has to be more interactive than passive (Pillar and Skilling, 2005). It also argued that classroom teachers urgently need to know more about effective strategies for teaching English learners (Thompson, 2004). Problem-life learning as a teaching method   is becoming increasing popular in education institutions as a tool to address the inadequacies of tradition teaching methods since its approaches do not encourage student to participate in the learning process (Teo and Wong, 2000).

 

However, more recently there is an argument in education industry to adopt a learner- centred paradigm shift (Ndirangu, 2007), while other schools of thought are advocating participatory methods of teaching (Sajjad, 2011).

There are two categories of teaching method namely, teacher-centered method and learner-centered methods of teaching  (MIE 2004). Learner-centered instruction refers to the students’ construct their own understanding of content. Develop a personal feeling that the knowledge is their own (Jacobson and Kauchak, 2009).  Therefore student centeredness implies the heavy emphasis on enquiry. Also, problem-based learning involves on making student as the centre point of learning and group work.

 

Learner (Student) Centered

(i)   Question and answers method              

Question and answers defined as a method both for teaching and oral testing based on the use of questions to be answered by the pupil (Mtunda and Safuli, 1997) in (MIE, 2004) Questioning techniques is one of the basic and successful ways of stimulating students thinking and learning (Ndirangu, 2007) it is applicable to all teaching approaches and methods.

(ii)Brainstorming

Brainstorming is a teaching techniques in which every pupil’s response that applies to a given topic is acceptable (MIE, 2004). The strengths of brain storming are ; promotes exploration, analysis and problem solving skills, develop the sense of  cooperation. And group cohesiveness in problem solving, encourages the generation of creative ideas. Also, promotes the generation of initiatives in searching solutions to problems.

The limitations of brainstorming are; it is time consuming if not planned, more useful to a limited number of learners and need through preparation.

 

Teacher-Centered

Teacher – centered methods of teaching are the one – way communication. Where by the teacher delivers the material orally while the learner listens or takes down notes (Kimweri, 2004).

The method is autocratic in form and allows very little or no room for active participation of the learners. Thus, providing little feedback to the teacher as to how effective the presentation has been such as lecture method.

Joselyn Nya

My Name is Joselyn Nya A Publisher in Project Boss Team. I'm a Nigerian I'm a graduate/Educational Researcher. Project Boss Team. We are the best for Project materials and project writing services. Email: admin@projectboss.com.ng

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