Research Proposals



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Title Page





Table of Contents



1.1     Background to the Study

1.2     Statement of the Problem

1.3     Purpose of the study

1.4     Significance of the study


1.5     Research Questions

1.6     Research Hypotheses

1.7     Delimitation of the study

1.8     Operational Definition of Terms





3.1     Research Area

3.2     Research Design

3.3     Population of the study

3.4     Sample and Sampling Technique

3.5     Research Instrument


3.6     Validation of the Instrument

3.7     Administration of the Instrument

3.8     Scoring of the Instrument

3.9     Method of Data Analysis



4.1     Data Analysis/Presentation

4.2     Discussion of Findings




5.1     Summary

5.2     Recommendations

5.3     Conclusion

5.4     Suggestion for further studies





This study investigates Local resources utilization and Academic Performance Students in Biology. The quasi-experimental design was in the study. The population of the study comprised of all SS2 students in all the public secondary schools in the study area who registered for Biology in 2021/2022 academic section. The total number of one hundred (100) students was the sample size. The instrument used was Biology Performance Test (BPT) to obtain data for the study. Independent t-test was used to analyze the data.




1.1    Background to the Study

Learning and teaching is the concern of a trained teacher but learning is a complex process. It can however be defined as a change in disposition, a relatively change in behaviour over-time and this is brought about by experience. Learning can occur as a result of newly acquired skill, knowledge, perception, facts, principles, new information at hand etc (Adeyanju, 2017).

Moreover, Okunronifa (2017) have examples of teaching resources to include visual aids, audio aids, audio-visual aids, real objects and many others. The visual aids are designed materials that may be locally made or commercially produced. They come in form of wall charts, illustrated pictures, pictorial materials, puppets and models. There are also audio-visual aids. These are teaching machines like radio, television and all sorts of projectors with sound attributes.

Akanbi (2018) specifically notes that whenever teachers taught with some teaching resources, their students get more stimulated because the learning aids used make the learners (students) to become more attentive. In addition, students positive attitude generate more interest for the lesson they teach.


As a result, students participate better in class activity. This in-turn enhanced academic achievement of students in Biology in secondary school.



In the opinion of Agun (2013), there is need for teachers to improvise teaching resources for effective delivery of lessons effectively in the classroom. Accordingly, the dwindling of economic fortune of the country makes it imperative that Biology teachers should improvise teaching resources using resources available within the local environment.

Most educational institutions cannot afford to depend on imported materials; hence, there is need for teachers and their students to improvise teaching and learning materials. This is by engaging students and by providing 3-dimensional models related to the current area of study in Biology. This can enhance effective teaching and learning of Biology thus improves academic achievement of school students in the subject.

Local resources from the immediate environment used by the teachers in the teaching-learning process have strong impression on the minds of the students. Its effect on the students helps to bridge the gap between reality and abstract.

According to Ogunbi (2011), when teaching resources are from the immediate environment and use effectively, it makes learning more interesting and lively. It also helps to retain interest of the learners during the delivery of Biology lessons in the classroom.


As put forward by Akanbi (2018), improvised teaching resources are relatively cheaper than the imported or standard resources. They are easily available for use by Biology teachers. Also, improvisation of teaching resources by the teacher creates an opportunity for students to participate in the provision of teaching materials.

It affords students the opportunity to exhibit such creative skill while participating in the provision of some of the teaching resource use for the delivery of Biology lessons. This will aid greatly in their academic achievement.


Moreover, students interpret instructional activities in terms of what they already know. They actively seek to relate new concepts, attitudes or skills on their prior set of concepts, attitudes or skills.

Thus, these human and material resources which are termed instructional resources are important to the teaching of Biology in the school curriculum. This resource arouses students’ interest and at the same time helps train learners to think things out themselves. In-depth understanding of such a lesson and makes learning interactive thereby motivating them to learn.

Therefore, this research shall attempt to find out local resources utilization and students academic performance in Biology in Ukanafun Local Government Area.


1.2    Statement of the Problem

Biology as a subject is activity oriented and resource-based. This is inadequate utilization of learning resources within the learners’ environment by Biology teachers. This suggests that the mastery of Biology concepts cannot be fully achieved without the use of learning materials in teaching the subject.

So the teaching of Biology without learning materials might result to poor academic achievement and lack of interest in the subject among students. This has greatly resulted in poor academic achievement among Biology students.


The study therefore, attempts to investigate the influence of improvised teaching resources on academic achievement of Biology students.

Unfortunately, despite the important of this subject, students’ academic performance has experience a continuous fall in it and this is worrisome and called for investigations.

However, the chief examiner of West African Council Examination (WACE) in 2015 reported that out of 616, 370 candidates who sat for the examination representing 38.68% obtained five credits and above including mathematics and English Language with this result, the expected percent is not achieved.


The chief examiner attributed this to several factors such as lack of teaching equipment, school variables and home local variables amongst others (Adesulu, 2015).

In the authors view, poor academic performance is science is due to lack of teaching resources in secondary schools in Ikot Ekpene senatorial district. This trigger the researcher’s interest to ask; could the use of local resources influence the academic performance of students in Biology? Finding answer to this question motivated the researcher to investigate on local resources utilization and academic performance of students in Biology in secondary schools.


1.3    Purpose of the study

The main purpose of this research was to find local resources utilization and academic performance of students in Biology in secondary schools. Specifically, the study intends to:

  • Investigate the academic performance of students taught using local resources and those taught without local resources in Biology; and
  • Examine gender difference and academic performance of students taught using local resources in Biology.


1.4    Significance of the study

                   This study shall be significance in the following ways:

  • Firstly, the findings of this study shall reduce abstraction in Biology thereby concretizing learning concept. Thus, which directly increases the academic performance of students
  • The findings of this study will serve as a guide to teachers on the effective use of local resources during the teaching learning process.
  • Also, the study will be of help to curriculum planners as it assists them in taking into considerations the use of local resources in Biology teaching.
  • Furthermore, Government through the Ministry of Education can now assess the provision of teaching resources in our secondary school for the teaching of Biology in schools.
  • Lastly, the study will serve as the reference point to other students/scholars who will be researching in the same topic.


1.5    Research Questions

  • Could the academic performance of students taught Biology using local resources significant difference from those taught Biology without using local resources?
  • Could there be any significant difference between academic performance of (gender) male and female students taught using local resources?


1.6    Research Hypotheses

  • There is no significant difference between academic performance of students taught Biology using local resources and those taught without local resources
  • There is no significant difference between academic performance of (gender) male and female students taught Biology using local resources


 1.7    Delimitation of the study

This study focused on local resources utilization and academic performance of students in Biology in secondary schools.


1.8    Operational Definition of Terms

The following terms were defined as used in the study:

Local Resources: In brief, these are those materials gotten from the immediate environment which are used to support teaching and learning process.

Utilization: In brief, this is the process of making use of local resources in teaching.

Academic Performance: This is the extent to which a student achieves in an examination or test that is the grade or scores of the student.



From the result obtained, it can be inferred that proper understanding of concept in Biology can be improve through the utilization of local resources which reduces abstraction and increases students’ participation as well as giving the students to explore their environment.

Also that gender difference does not influence the academic performance of students taught using of local resources. This is because male and female students that were taught using local resources performed academically better.


Ikemesit Akpan is my name. I am a Nigerian author. I work with I'm a researcher and a writer of academic research.

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