Research Proposals



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Title Page


Approval Page



Table of Contents




1.1          Background to the Study

1.2          Statement of the Problem

1.3          Purpose of the Study

1.4          Research Questions


1.5          Hypotheses

1.6          Significance of the Study

1.7          Scope/Delimitation of the Study

1.8          Definition of Operational Terms




3.1          Design of the Study

3.2          Population of the Study

3.3          Sample and Sampling Techniques

3.4          Research Instrument

3.5          Validity of the Instrument


3.6          Reliability of the Instrument

3.7          Administration of the Instrument

3.8          Data Analysis Technique



4.1          Analyses of Data Results

4.2          Summary of Major Findings

4.3          Discussion of the Findings



5.1          Summary

5.2          Conclusion

5.3          Recommendations

5.4          Suggestions for Further Studies






1.1   Background to the Study

Learning resources are texts, software and of the materials that teachers use to assist students to meet the extractions for learning. Schools must ensure that teaching and learning resources balance the need to provide challenging and engaging learning programs for students with the use of materials.

Moreover, according to Mcdonnel (2022), practice classes are designed to complement materials dealt in lectures and give students practical experiences which will be in available in their career as Biology for biology learning resourses like laboratory equipment and instructional materials. Thus, learning resources utilization tends to have influence on the academic performance of students.


Without reservation, for effective understanding of biology concepts, the application and effective use of resources has been identified for a better approach. These resources if well utilized, increase the achievement level of the students and also engineer positive challenges.  Therefore, learning resources is anything which can be use to achieve the goals and objectives of any class.

In addition, teaching/learning resources according to Awoloda (2020), are those human and material inputs necessary for achieving the objectives of concept to be taught. It is the sum total of everything used directly or indirectly for the purpose of educational training to facilitate or encourage the acquisition of knowledge competence, skill and know how.



According to Akolo (2008) as cited by Jekayinfa (2022), poor academic achievement in Biology is as a result of ineffective utilization of resources. Thus, this implies that the mastery of Biology concepts might not be fully achieved without effective utilization of resources.


Resources when effectively utilized bring about effectiveness and efficiency in the teaching / learning process and invariably promote and enhance the attainment of instructional objectives. However, since learning resources play vital role in the teaching/learning process, teachers should essentially be familiar with the principle of designing and producing, selecting and utilizing learning resources. Therefore, this study aimed to examine learning resources utilization and academic performance of students in biology.


1.2   Statement of the Problem

Teaching and Learning of Biology demands lots of time knowledge and hard work. In the area of practical and experimentation, reports from several researchers revealed that students performance in  Biology Senior Secondary Certificate Examination SSCE, like WASCE have been poor (Aburine, 2021 and Abiyal, 2022).

However, the quality of Biology instruction in secondary school in Etim Ekpo Local Government Area is really of great concerned in this study. This is because Biology instruction requires specialized laboratory and use of resources which may not be adequately available or properly utilized for Biology teaching in the schools.  Learning resources utilization and academic performance of students in biology.

Nonutilization of resources available for use in Biology instruction may result to several problems such as:

  1. Students low level of academic performance.
  2. Restriction to access in the implementation of modern science by the teachers and students.
  3. Decline in the promotion of scientific literacy in Nigeria.

This assumptions constitute the basis for the study which aimed to examine learning resources utilization and academic performance of students in biology.


1.3   Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of the study was to examine learning resources utilization and academic performance of students in biology. Specifically, the study intends:

  1. To determine how adequate laboratory equipment affects students’ academic performance in Biology.
  2. To asses how instructional material utilization affects students’ academic   performance in Biology.


1.4   Research Questions

        The following research questions were formulated to guide the study.

  1. How does laboratory equipment affects students’ academic performance in Biology.
  2. How does instructional material utilization affects student’s academic performance in Biology.


1.5   Research Hypotheses

        The following null hypotheses were posed to direct the study:

  1. There is no significant difference in academic performance between students taught Biology with laboratory equipment and those taught without.
  2. There is no significant difference in academic performance between students taught Biology with instructional materials and those taught without.


1.6   Significance of the Study

It is hoped that this study will enhance the teachers’ and students’ awareness of the importance of Learning Resources as well as their effective utilization in achieving good results in Biology during senior secondary Certificate Examination and National Examination Council in secondary schools in Etim Ekpo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.

It will also show the parents the extent to which the academic performance depends on the effective utilization of both human and material learning resources. The study will also alert the government of the importance of adequate provision of learning resources in Biology. Learning resources utilization and academic performance of students in biology.

In addition, the study will be immense important if the standard of education is met as stipulated in the National Policy of Education. It will also help the student to improve their performance in Biology and other science subjects. It will also help not only the teachers of Biology but teacher in other fields to improve upon their interpersonal relationship as well as their teaching with the students.


1.7   Limitation of the Study

The major constraint was that time used to carry out this research was too short; this is so considering the fact that I was doing it along side with my normal academic activities.

Another limitation encountered is the transportation problem. The  schools in this research work are located in the rural areas and are accessible by motorcycle, this cost a lot of money in moving from one school to another.


1.8   Delimitation of the Study

        This study is restricted to two broad variables of learning resource which are laboratory facilities and instructional material resources. It was restricted to schools in Etim Ekpo Local Government Area.

Also, the ability to delimit to senior secondary II (SSII) offering Biology in the schools that are randomly selected for the study.


1.9   Definition of Terms

Learning Resources Utilization: In brief, these refer to the process of utilizing instructional resources effectively.

Instructional Resource: These are those facilities, equipment and consumables which are utilize by the teacher to illustrate or emphasized and explain a lesson with the intention of making the lesson clear to the learners.

Academic Performance: This refers to the assessment and measurement of knowledge and skills developed in schools after exposure to learning experience for a period of time.



The researcher of the study revealed a significant difference between adequate laboratory equipment and academic performance of students in Biology. The findings also revealed that schools with adequate laboratory equipment tend to do better academically than those without adequate laboratory equipment. Learning resources utilization and academic performance of students in biology.

It has also been confirmed that students taught with instructional materials performed better than those taught without instructional materials. This instructional material significantly influences the performance of students in Biology.


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Peter Hezekiah

I am Peter Hezekiah, a Nigerian. A graduate of Economics/Education. I'm the Editor in (A online company that deals with writing of final year project and provision of project materials of any topic to final year project students). My personal email is My personal number; +2347068634102

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