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1.1    Background of the Study

1.2    Statement of the Problem

1.3    Objective of the Study


1.4    Significant of the Study

1.5   Research Questions

1.6    Limitation of the Study

1.7   Delimitation of the Study

1.8    Definition of Term


CHAPTER TWO               




3.1    Area of Study

3.2    Research Design

3.3    Population of the Study

3.4    Sample and Sampling Techniques


3.5    Instrument for Data Collection

3.6    Validation of Instrument

3.7    Reliability of Instrument

3.8    Method of Data Analysis




4.1    Data Analysis

4.2    Discussion of the Finding




5.1    Summary

5.2    Conclusion

5.3    Recommendation

5.4    Suggestions for Further Studies






1.1   Background to the Study

The teaching-learning process in schools is a complex activity which unites together processes such as instructing and training with the overall intention of getting learners not only to acquire knowledge skill and modes of conduct but to acquire them in a manner which involves understanding and evaluation of what is taught. Thus, this implies that the instructional process in school involves systematic approach of imparting knowledge and skills and mode of conduct by oral speech written language or any way appropriate to the content presented (Nsofor, 2023).

The success of teaching and learning has been linked to availability of learning resources. Moreover, to support poorly performing schools, educational authorities must increase student levels and competencies by use of these resources for students to be ready for National Assessments (UNESCO, 2015). This can be done through instructional material development and allocation of resources. Resources ranging from textbooks to library books to websites, a variety of resources are available to help teachers meet the needs and pique the interest of their learners.


Furthermore, the teaching-learning process depends to a greater existence on not just the availability of teaching-learning resources but their effective utilization in the teaching-learning process. Accordingly, it is indisputable that the realization of the objective of any teaching-learning process will be an illusion in the absence of teaching and learning resources.



Generally, teaching and learning resources are the devices developed or acquired to assist or facilitate teachers in transmitting organized knowledge, skills and attitudes to the learners within an instructional situation (Nwachukwu, 2016).

Teachers use different teaching resources to motivate learning, teachers often make use of textbooks, charts, models, graphics realia as well as improvised materials to motivate learners. Teaching and learning resources are therefore materials that aid the teacher to teach effectively.

The utilization of learning resources in the teaching of pupils requires a process which will bring about or lead to a fruitful and effective teaching and learning and also motivate and stimulate pupils’ senses. The process of effective organization and management of resources is called Resource Utilization.


Agun (2018) asserted that one of the primary roles of a teacher in instructional situations is that of a communicator. A teacher elicits relevant responses from his audience after his teaching to see how progressive or fruitful the teaching is.

In this case, the audience is of course the learners. The teacher tries in his teaching to effect some changes in the behavior of the learners by presenting some facts and information following the teaching rules and procedures which one of them is the use of learning resources to teach.

The teacher also directs and involves the learners actively and meaningfully through their participation in the lesson and also guides them so as to be sure that there is an effective transfer of knowledge.


Furthermore, Olagunju (2019) observed that there are varieties of resources which the science teacher can use to enrich his or her teaching. Thus, among them are; Microscopes, wind vane, rain gauge, metre rules, models, charts, preserved specimens of plants and animals, culturing equipments and a lot more. Be it as it may, learning resources stands out as the most important device which both the teachers and learners can use to enhance effective teaching and learning.


Abia (2018) observe that in the teaching and learning process, the availability and the utilization of instructional materials (learning resources) have become very necessary in the promotion of meaningful teaching. Despite the importance of learning resources in the teaching, it seems that teachers make ineffective use of them as evidenced by the poor academic performance of students in  public examinations.

For instance, Soyibi (2019) asserts that since in 1990s, Nigerian candidates performance at the senior secondary certificate examinations have remained consistently poor with having the highest enrolment and the poorest results annually in a recent study.

Without a doubt, this trend of poor academic performance creates doubts as to whether the goal of equipping students to live effectively is in consonance with the national policy on education (2014). Therefore, it is against this background that this study is undertaken to ascertain the effect of learning resources and academic performance in primary schools.


1.2   Statement of Problem

Teaching in primary schools especially the science related subjects curriculum seems to bedeviled by the problem of poor academic performance in public examinations because of the unavailability or the ineffective utilization of learning resources. Undeniably, a teacher needs to consider the teaching materials for each learning and make sure they are properly used so as to draw pupils’ attention to the lesson and also help them to understand the lesson easily and maximally.

Studies have shown that poor performance in primary schools is as a result of unavailability of adequate learning resources, lack of proper usage of learning resources by the teachers, lack of well trained teachers, lack of incentive to the teachers and of course, lack of student interest in learning. It is in view of this that the researcher attempt to  find if learning resources affects academic performance in primary schools and also, if the available learning resources are being effective utilized.


1.3   Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to examine the effect of learning resources on academic performance in primary schools.

Specifically the study seeks to:

  1. Examine if learning resources such as microscope, wind vanes, rain gauge, metre rules, models, charts, preserved specimens of plants and animals, culturing equipments and many others are available in primary schools.
  2. Examine if the available learning resources in primary schools are effectively utilized.


1.4   Research Questions:

The following questions where formulated to guide the study:

  1. Are models, equipments, reagents and chemicals available in primary schools in Ukanafun Local Government Area for teaching?
  2. To what extent are the available learning resources utilized for the effective teaching and learning in primary schools?


1.5   Significance of the study

Through this survey, Educational planners will see the need of supplying learning resources for teaching and learning in primary schools where they are not available to enable the pupils learn well.

Secondly, it will help the government officials to see the need of proper funding of the primary school teachers. Thus, sending them on further training (i.e. seminars and workshop) so that they may be able to play their roles effectively.

Government will benefit from this study because it will help them in making policies concerning the effective utilization and management of learning resources in schools.

This study will also serve as a reference point to other researchers on the same topic.


1.6   Limitation of the Study

        This research was limited by a number of factors, hence there were some limitations encountered.

  1. Time: the period given for the completion of this survey was not enough for a wider in depth research situation.
  2. Finance: the financial constraint exerted a lot of influence on the study and the researcher hardly had enough money to allow for the coverage of wider area.


Definitions of Terms

Learning resources: Learning resources can be defined as the materials that teachers can access to help them do some aspect of their job better as part of the professional development process.

Academic performance: In brief, academic performance is the measurement of student achievement across various academic subjects. Thus, teachers and education officials typically measure achievement using classroom performance, graduation rates and results from standardized tests.

Effect: Effect can simply be defined as a change which is a result or consequence of an action or other cause.



The place of learning resources in teaching and learning cannot be undermined especially in academic performance of pupils. This is because the effective utilization of learning resources performs the function of extending the range of experience and also retains the knowledge obtained during the teaching learning process. It supplements and complements the teacher’s verbal explanation and also makes experience richer while providing the teacher with interest into a wide variety of learning activities.

However, the use of resources supplements, clarify and enhances learning in the process of transmitting knowledge, ideas, skills and attitude and also helps teachers to make lessons more effective and improve academic performances.


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Joselyn Nya

My Name is Joselyn Nya A Publisher in Project Boss Team. I'm a Nigerian I'm a graduate/Educational Researcher. Project Boss Team. We are the best for Project materials and project writing services. Email:

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