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Title Page





Table of Contents


1.1  Background of the Study

1.2  Statement of the Problem

1.3  Purpose of the study

1.5  Significance of the study


1.6  Research Questions

1.7  Research Hypotheses

1.8  Limitation of the Study

1.9  Delimitation of the study

1.10 Operational Definition of Terms




3.1  Research Design

3.2  Area of the Study

3.3  Population of the study

3.4  Sample and Sampling Procedure


3.5  Instrumentation

3.6  Validation of Instrument

3.7  Administration of Questionnaire

3.8  Scoring of Instrument

3.9  Method of Data Analysis



4.1  Summary of Findings


4.2  Discussion of Findings




5.1  Introduction

5.2  Summary

5.3. Conclusion

5.4  Recommendation






1.1     Background to the study

Without a doubt, modern science is the base upon which modern advances in technology depends. However, many breakthroughs that man has recorded in the quest to improve his life were achieved through the knowledge of science. Moreover, at the senior level of education, science is departmentalized into Biology, Chemistry and Physics. In fact, science education plays prominent roles in determining scientific and technological advancement of every individual and the nation as a whole.

Furthermore, according to Alebiosu (2022) the major goal of science education is to develop scientifically literate and personally concerned individuals with high competence for rational thought and actions. Also, science educators significantly contribute to the development of scientifically literate persons who will further use the achievement and experiences in science and technology for the benefit of mankind. Hence, steps toward developments in science education are inevitable.



Emphatically, Bilesanmi-Awoderu (2012) noted that in Nigeria the Federal Government recognized the potency of science education in improving the nation’s technological and industrial development. Hence, there have been some concerted efforts on the part of successive governments to improve the participation and academic achievement of science students.

Science is the foundation upon which the bulk of present day technological breakthrough is built. Nowadays, nations all over the world including Nigeria are striving hard to develop technologically and scientifically, since the world is turning scientific and all proper functioning of lives depend greatly on science. Also, Owolabi (2021) defined science as an integral part of human society. Its impact is felt in every sphere of human life, so much that it is intricately linked with a nation’s development.

Science as a field of study has done a lot for mankind. For instance, life has been made a lot easier for man as a result of the advancements in science.

Through science, man has been able to better understand his environment and this has enabled him to manipulate the conditions of his environment to suit his own benefit. Science has also made it possible for man to acquire his desired needs easily. It has reduced human needs to the barest minimum.


Ogunleye (2020) observed that science is a dynamic human activity concerned with understanding the workings of our world. This understanding helps man to know more about the universe. Without the applications of science, it would have been impossible for man to explore the other planets of the universe. Also, the awareness of the existence, of other planets would not have been realized without science.

Many investigations have shown that students in Secondary schools are not very much interested in science (Esiobu, 2015; Okonkwo, 2010). Besides, Biology as the core-science subjects has remained one of the most difficult subjects in the senior secondary school curriculum NERDC (2014).


A study by Amos (2017) revealed that the performance of Nigerian students in terminal examination in Biology was generally poor. Thus, this was attributed by the author to many factors of teaching strategy itself was considered as an important factor.

Jegede (2019) reported factors responsible for students’ general poor performance in science, technology and mathematics, are poor selection  of instructional facilities, inability of the Biology teachers to put across ideas clearly to the students and inadequate number of learning facilities in schools as against consistent increase in the number of students.


However, the teaching of Biology without laboratory facilities will certainly result to poor teaching in the subject in secondary schools.

Furthermore, Franzer, (2022) stressed that a professionally qualified science teacher no matter how well trained, would be unable to put his ideas into practice if the school setting lacks the equipment and materials necessary for him or her to translate his competence into reality.

Bassey (2019) asserted that the study of Basic Science is facilitated through use of a laboratory for the demonstration or investigation of Biological fact or phenomenon. The overall objectives of the Biology teaching as enumerated in FMR (2013) where to enable learners to:

  • Firstly, develop interest in science and technology;
  • Secondly, apply their scientific and technology and skills to meet societal needs;
  • Take advantages of the numerous career opportunities offered by science and technology;
  • Become prepared for further studies in science and technology.


A closer look at these objectives will show that for a successful attainment of these goals a lot of laboratory and field work must be done by the students. Without the necessary equipment and effective use of these equipment students would not be able to meet these objectives.

Currently in our schools, there is gender difference in science achievement and these have attracted some debate. Ikoks, (2015) in a study on trends in student’s achievement in Science observed that male students performed significantly better than female students.

Ibritam, (2011) found out that boys and girls performed equally better academically when laboratory facilities are available and accessible for used by Science teachers. It is therefore asserted that learners can achieve more if given the opportunity to use the available equipment at their disposal.  Moreover, laboratory facilities play a paramount role in the teaching and learning of science subjects and inevitably the student’s academic achievement in the subjects. Laboratory facilities utilization and teaching of biology in secondary schools.

Despite the effort, aimed at improving science education in Nigeria there has been in recent times a growing public anxiety about fallen standard of education especially in the science subjects like Basic Science. Undeniably, one of the disturbing problems of the Nigerian education system is the inability of most of the students to perform well in examinations in most Nigerian public secondary schools (Okafor, 2014).

In fact, the role of the laboratory facilities has becomes a key component in understanding Science. Thus, it provides students with the opportunities to questions, observes, samples experience and experiment with scientific phenomena in their quest for knowledge of living things.

However, availability of laboratory equipment could help students connect to the object of study and increase students’ participation laboratory equipment if available for teaching and learning can increase students’ interest in science and develop students understanding of scientific concepts and skills. Hence, it allows collaborative working and gives students the skills to tackle global challenges (Hofstein and Mamlok-Naaman, 2013).


The absence or the insufficient supplies of these learning resources undoubtedly affect academic performance of students in science subjects. Laboratory facilities utilization increases the research aptitude of the students and thus making the bright future of students. Therefore, this formed the background that this study is setup to examine laboratory facilities utilization and teaching of biology in secondary schools.


1.2     Statement of the Problem

Considering the role of science and technology in the development of any nation and more so in a country considered to be developing like Nigeria. Science educators believe that achievement of students at their full potentials and sustained interest in science especially Biology, could be a function of appropriate lesson delivery techniques on one hand, but also of the relevance, adequacy and applicability of the materials and equipment upon which science lessons must be based.

The findings of this study will thus provide answers to questions such as:  Does students taught with laboratory facilities perform better than students taught without laboratory facilities? Therefore, based on these facts, the study seeks to find out laboratory facilities utilization and teaching of biology in secondary schools.


1.3     Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of the study was to investigate laboratory facilities utilization and teaching of biology in secondary schools. Specifically, the study is designed to:

  • Investigate the level of laboratory facilities availability in the teaching of Biology in secondary schools.
  • Investigate the level of laboratory facilities utilization in the teaching of Biology in secondary schools.


1.4  Significance of the Study

The study is highly significant in enabling parents, educationists and education stakeholders in measuring laboratory facilities in relationship to teaching effectiveness.

Also this study will be of benefit to educationists who are interested in knowing how laboratory factors affect teaching effectiveness.


This study is also helpful to parents who are interested in the educational performance of their children most especially in Biology and parents who are intending to mould their children to become biology tutors in future as this study tends to assess laboratory facilities and teaching effectiveness.

The knowledge among the Biology teachers on the negative influence caused by the poor laboratory management will make them to develop and enrich in proper laboratory management and control culture in order to improve their teaching effectiveness. Laboratory facilities utilization and teaching of biology in secondary schools.


Furthermore, the study will be of benefit to policy makers and curriculum planners on the need to encourage adequate improvisation among Biology teachers.

In addition, it will expose Biology teachers to the rudiment and need for improvisation of laboratory facilities in the teaching-learning of Biology in secondary schools in the absence of the standard laboratory facilities.

It will help parents to know the need of providing opportunities for their children to explore their own local environment as well as encouraging them to be involved in the improvisation process in school.

Finally, the study will serve as a source of data for future researchers.


1.5  Research Questions

The following research questions were formulated to guide the study:

  • What is the level of availability of laboratory facilities in teaching of Biology in secondary schools?
  • To what extent is the level of utilization of laboratory facilities in teaching of Biology in secondary schools?


Definition of Terms

The following key concepts were defined as used in the study:

Laboratory: This is a place equipped and used for explanation to scientific laws and theories are verified, proven and explain to students while teaching Biology.

Laboratory Facilities: These are the non-human resources (equipment and apparatuses) which are used by teachers in the provision of explanation to scientific laws and theories while teaching Biology in the laboratory.

Teaching: In brief, this is the act of helping people to learn effectively.

Biology: This is the study of plants and animals.



From the result obtained, it can be inferred that the utilization of laboratory facilities enhances proper understanding of concept, reduces abstraction and increases students’ participation as well as increasing the teaching effectiveness of the teacher.

Also,there is a significant difference in the mean achievement scores of students taught using laboratory facilities and those taught without laboratory facilities utilization in Biology; also that significant difference in the mean achievement scores of male and female students taught using laboratory facilities in Biology in secondary schools.


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Peter Hezekiah

I am Peter Hezekiah, a Nigerian. A graduate of Economics/Education. I'm the Editor in (A online company that deals with writing of final year project and provision of project materials of any topic to final year project students). My personal email is My personal number; +2347068634102

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