Research Proposals

INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNIQUES AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN BIOLOGY

INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNIQUES AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN BIOLOGY

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgments

Abstract

Table of Contents

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION  

1.1    Background to the Study

1.2    Statement of the Problem

1.3    Purpose of the Study

1.4    Significance of the Study

 

1.5    Research Hypotheses

1.6    Delimitation of the Study

1.7    Limitation of the Study

1.8    Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO:          REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

CHAPTER THREE:       RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1    Area of the Study

3.2    Research Design

3.3    Population of the Study

3.4    Sample and sampling Technique

3.5    Instrument for data collection

 

3.6    Validation of the Instrument

3.7    Administration of the Instrument

3.8    Scoring of the Instrument

3.9    Method of Data Analysis

 

CHAPTER FOUR:         RESULTS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

4.1    Results

4.2    Discussion of Findings

 

CHAPTER FIVE:   SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION

5.1    Summary

5.2    Recommendations

5.3    Conclusion

5.4    Suggestion for further Study

References

Appendix

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background to the Study

Research on instructional technique has for long been of interest to educationists. However, some studies have been carried out on certain aspects of the programme but have not investigated the academic performance of learners in primary and secondary level of education in the use of some specific instructional techniques (Starr, 2021).

Research evidence shows that the challenges confronting the secondary school teachers are basically on the lesson delivery techniques of imparting the knowledge (Starr, 2021). Moreover, it was argued by Adufe (2018) that teaching is based on methods which at the long run bring about effective teaching.

Starr (2011) opined that teaching is an attempt to help someone acquire or change some skills, altitude, knowledge, idea or appreciation.

 

In fact, the teacher is to influence desirable changes in behaviour or in tendencies towards behaviour in the learners. This implies that success in teaching is measured by the degree to which the teacher is able to achieve the desired learning needed by his students and how to bring about such learning. Thus, the teacher must know how to select the content and methods to use for his lesson delivery.

 

INSTRUCTIONAL TECHNIQUES AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN BIOLOGY

Furthermore, The Nigeria Teachers Institute (N.T.I.) system course book (1999) defined teaching method as a process of selecting, directing, controlling and evaluating the experiences of the child to achieve desirable outcome. Instructional approach may be regarded as a broad and consistent manner of teaching adopted by a teacher as guided by certain basic beliefs.

 

Hence, to achieve the objectives of education as stated by the Federal Government of Nigeria in National Policy on Education (2014), serious efforts must be made to ensure that proper teaching process takes place in the school. This implies that conducive learning environment must be put in place and appropriate method must be adopted. Instructional techniques and academic performance of secondary school students in biology.

In brief, Biology is that part of science that has to do with living and non-living things. As such teachers teaching the subject should adopt appropriate methods and techniques for better teaching-learning process to enhance academic performance of the learners. Academic performance here means the capacity of a learner in terms of attainment in quantitative form of specified learning objectives in a given curriculum in Biology (Aina, 2023).

 

However, instructional technique is a supporting device which a teacher uses to emphasize his ideas through communication and manipulation of other resources (Brunner, 1999). In addition, Aina (2023) viewed it as a particular technique or method adopted by a teacher to present his lesson to the learners. Thus, instructional technique is very vital in any teaching/learning process.

The technique adopted by a teacher may promote or hinder learning of Biology in Uyo Local Government Area. It may sharpen mental activities which are the basis of social power or may discourage initiatives and curiosity thus making self-reliance and survival difficult.

 

Specifically, there are different instructional techniques for effective and efficient teaching of Biology. These techniques include: lecture, demonstration, discussion, field trip, assignment, activity, cooperative teaching methods etc. selection of appropriate techniques for Biology instruction depends on the type of lesson, whether practical or theoretical, the competence of the teacher to handle the technique and the nature of instruction itself (Aina, 2023). Therefore, this study intends to examine instructional techniques and academic performance of secondary school students in biology.

 

1.2    Statement of the Problem

Students’ persistent poor performance in Biology has been the main concern of this research. Indeed, it is believed that the falling level of academic achievement in Biology is attributable to teacher’s instructional techniques.

Moreover, Derek (2017) reported the seriousness of the deplorable performance of secondary school students in Biology  and identified persistent use of the lecture instructional technique as one of the major short coming that affects the learning and  higher achievement in Biology. In fact, this performance is partly ascribed to inadequate teaching and instructional methods adopted by Biology teachers.

In view of this, the study tends to examine instructional techniques and academic performance of secondary school students in biology.

 

1.3    Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to examine instructional techniques and academic performance of secondary school students in biology. Specifically, the study seeks to:

  1. Determine the performance of students when discussion and lecture instructional techniques are used in the teaching of Biology.
  2. Examine the performance of students when activity and demonstration instructional techniques are used in the teaching of Biology

 

1.4    Significance of the Study

The research finding is significant in the following ways: it will help the students who have lost hope in doing well in Biology that all hope is not lost as they can still understand the subject by improvement in teaching methods used by their teachers. It will also benefit teachers by helping them to understand the appropriate instructional techniques to be employed in carrying out their duties. Instructional techniques and academic performance of secondary school students in biology.

Also, the study will enlighten the general public on factors that significantly by contribute to academic success or failure of Biology students in schools. It will also serve as a reference manual for future researchers on related topics.

Finally, all the stakeholders in this study will benefit from the findings, as the learning of Biology will be very enjoyable and the students will perform better in both internal and external examinations.

 

1.5    Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:

  1. There is no significant difference in the performance of students when discussion and lecture instructional techniques are used in the teaching of Biology.
  2. There is no significant difference in the performance of students when activity and demonstration instructional techniques are used in the teaching of Biology.

 

1.6    Delimitation of the Study

The scope of the study covers only instructional techniques and academic performance of secondary students in Biology in Uyo Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. Among those variables that determines instructional techniques; discussion, lecture, activity and demonstration teaching techniques are variables included in the study.

 

1.7    Limitation of the Study

Several problems were encountered while undertaking this research. Some of these were:   

  1. The period given for the completion of this study could hardly be enough for a wider and more in-depth research into the problem situation.
  2. Lack of funds to procure the necessary materials and to get to the selected schools for the study posed other serious problems.

 

1.8    Definition of Terms

Instructional Technique: This is a method used by an individual teacher to teach his or her lesson to the learners.   

Academic Performance: This refers to the achievement of students in secondary school in test or examinations.  

 

Conclusion

It is evident from all that have been discussed in this study that instructional techniques  has great influence in the teaching and learning of Biology as well as academic performance of students. It is also important to realize that the best planned lesson is worthless if interesting instructional technique along with good classroom management techniques, are not in evidence.

Consequently, the students’ interest and assimilation are paramount in any teaching and learning environment. Therefore, teachers must be sure that the aim of education is achieved by applying the appropriate method during class activity. Thus, this will enhance the academic performance of students in many subjects including Biology.

 

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