Research Proposals

INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES AND PUPILS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN MATHEMATICS IN PRE-PRIMARY SCHOOLS

INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES AND PUPILS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN MATHEMATICS IN PRE-PRIMARY SCHOOLS

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgments

Abstract

Table of Contents

 

CHAPTER ONE:    INTRODUCTION  

1.1     Background to the Study

1.2     Statement of the Problem

1.3     Purpose of the Study

 

1.4     Significance of the Study

1.5     Research Hypotheses

1.6     Delimitation of the Study

1.7     Limitation of the Study

1.8     Definition of Terms

 

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

CHAPTER THREE:         RESEARCH METHODS

3.1     Area of the Study

3.2     Research Design

3.3     Population of the Study

3.4     Sample and sampling Technique

 

3.5     Instrument for Data Collection

3.6     Validation of the Instrument

3.7     Administration of the Instrument

3.8     Scoring of the Instrument

3.9     Method of Data Analysis

 

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

4.1     Data Analysis

4.2     Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE:   SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1     Summary

5.2     Conclusion

5.3     Recommendations

5.4     Suggestion for Further Study

References

Appendix

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background to the Study

Research on instructional strategies has for long been of interest to educationists. However, some studies have been carried out on certain aspects of the programme but have not investigated the academic performance of learners in pre-primary and primary level of education in the use of some specific instructional strategies.

Research evidence showed that the challenges confronting the pre-primary school teachers are basically on the lesson delivery techniques of imparting the knowledge (Starr, 2021). Moreover, it was argued by Adufe (2018) that teaching is based on methods and strategies which at the long run bring about effective learning.

 

Furthermore, Starr (2021) opined that teaching is an attempt to help someone acquire or change some skills, altitude, knowledge, idea or appreciation. In other word, the teacher is to influence desirable changes in behaviour or tendencies towards behaviour in the learners.

The Nigeria Certificate in Education Distance Learning System Course Book (2019) defined instructional strategies as a process of selecting, directing, controlling and evaluating the experiences of the child in order to achieve desirable outcome.

 

INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES AND PUPILS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN MATHEMATICS IN PRE-PRIMARY SCHOOLS

Moreso, Mathematics as a science subject touches almost every aspect of human being life in the society (Brown, 2014). Understanding Mathematics is useful for ensuring that our financial life is successful. As such, teachers teaching the subject should adopt appropriate methods and strategies for better academic performance of the learners.

However, instructional strategy is a supporting device which a teacher uses to emphasize his ideas through communication and manipulation of other resources (Brunner, 1999). Aina (2020) viewed it as a particular approach or method adopted by a teacher to present his lesson to the learners. As such, instructional strategies are very vital in any teaching/learning process. The technique adopted by a teacher may promote or hinder learning of Mathematics in Oron Local Government Area.

 

Instructional strategies may sharpen mental activities which are the basis of social power or may discourage initiatives and curiosity thus making self-reliance and survival difficult. Instructional strategies and pupils academic performance in mathematics in pre-primary schools.

In addition, according to Farrell and Farmer (2023), there are different instructional strategies for effective and efficient teaching. These strategies include: play way, demonstration, discussion, field trip, assignment, discovery, cooperative teaching strategies etc.

Selection of appropriate strategies for Mathematics instruction depends on the type of lessons, whether practical or theoretical, the competence of the teacher to handle the technique and the nature of instruction itself (Aina, 2020). Therefore, this study intends to investigate how instructional strategies influence pupils’ academic performance in Mathematics in pre-primary schools in Oron Local Government Area.

 

1.2    Statement of the Problem

Pupils’ persistent poor performance in Mathematics has been the main concern of this research. It is believed that the falling level of academic achievement in Mathematics is attributable to teacher’s instructional strategies.

However, Derek (2017) reported the seriousness of the deplorable performance of pre-primary school pupils in Mathematics and identified persistent use of the conventional instructional approach as one of the major short coming that affects the learning and  higher achievement in Mathematics.

In view of this, the study tends to examine the academic performance of pupils using the following techniques: play way, demonstration and discovery methods of instructional strategies to determine the effect of each strategy on academic performance of pupils in Mathematics particularly in Oron Local Government Area.

 

1.3    Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to assess instructional strategies and pupils academic performance in mathematics in pre-primary schools. Specifically, the study seeks to:

  1. Determine the academic performance of pupils when demonstration instructional strategy is used in the teaching of Mathematics.
  2. Examine the academic performance of pupils when play way instructional strategy is used in the teaching of Mathematics.
  3. Assess the academic performance of pupils when discovery instructional strategy is used in the teaching of Mathematics.

 

1.4    Significance of the Study

The outcomes of this study will aid curriculum planners in planning Mathematics curriculum that will be suitable to the learners at that level of education.

All the stakeholders in this study will benefit from the findings, as the learning of Mathematics will be very enjoyable and the pupils will perform better in both internal and external examinations.

Finally, it will also serve as a reference manual for future researchers on related topics. Instructional strategies and pupils academic performance in mathematics in pre-primary schools.

 

Definition of Terms

Instructional Strategy: In brief, this is a technique or method used by an individual teacher to teach his or her lesson to the learners.   

Demonstration Method: This refers to the display or an exhibition usually carried out by the teacher while the pupils watch.

 

Play Way Method: Play way method of teaching is an inductive method where teaching occurs gradually with fun and frolic which also nourishes the language proficiency effortlessly.

Discovery Method: Is a method of instruction in which a pupil performs certain mental processes such as observing, classifying, measuring, predicting, inferring, and others.

 

Conclusion

Based on the objectives of the study, the following conclusions were drawn:

  1. There is a significant difference in academic performance of pupils when demonstration instructional strategy is used in the teaching of Mathematics. Instructional strategies and pupils academic performance in mathematics in pre-primary schools.
  2. There is a significant difference in academic performance of pupils when play way instructional strategy is used in the teaching of Mathematics.
  3. There is a significant difference in academic performance of pupils when discovery instructional strategy is used in the teaching of Mathematics.

 

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