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INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgements

Abstract

Table of Contents

 

CHAPTER ONE – INTRODUCTION 

1.1    Background to the Study

1.2    Statement of the Problem

1.3    Purpose of the Study

1.4    Significance of the Study

 

1.5    Research Hypotheses

1.6    Delimitation of the Study

1.7    Limitation of the Study

1.8    Operational Definition of Terms

 

CHAPTER TWO – REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE 

 

CHAPTER THREE – RESEARCH METHODS

3.1    Area of the Study

3.2    Research Design

3.3    Population of the Study

 

3.4    Sample and Sampling Technique

3.5    Instrument for Data Collection

3.6    Validation of the Instrument

3.7    Administration of the Instrument

3.8    Method of Data Analysis

 

CHAPTER FOUR – DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

4.1    Data Analysis

4.2    Discussion of the Findings

CHAPTER FIVE – SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION

5.1    Summary

5.2    Recommendations

5.3    Conclusion

References

Appendix

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

Teaching is the art of unleashing the potentials that are inherent in the recipient, so as to draw out knowledge from the students. Moreover, according to Jones (2020), the ability to do this involves making a choice of the most appropriate pedagogical strategy that would ensure optimal assimilation of the instruction materials from the giver.

Studies have of course shown that the degree of assimilation of students correlates to the method of instruction (Tennyson, et al 2008 and Gardner, 2021). Though there are two main approaches to teaching; the teacher centered and student centered have dominated interaction in classroom and captures the various methods that students can learn the important decimal in whatever method of passing knowledge is assimilation by the recipient (Rascarella, 2020).

 

INSTRUCTIONAL STRATEGIES AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

Moreover, by way of definition, teaching has been variously seen as the art of instilling a sense of curiosity about one’s world and in enhancing the skills necessary to perpetuate this curiosity. But skinner (1968) in Duruji et al (2014) sees teaching as an arrangement of contingencies of reinforcement.

However, Eble (2018) defines teaching as the presence of mind and person and body in related to another mind and person and body, a complex array of mental, spiritual and physical acts affecting others. Instructional strategies and academic performance of students in secondary schools.

 

Furthermore, Brookfield (2016) supports this characterization of the interactive nature of teaching by describing it as essentially a transactional encounter in which learners and teachers are engaged in a continual process of negotiation of priorities, methods, and evaluative criteria.

Therefore, pertinent in teaching and learning is the ability to apply skills to the arts of teaching with an aim to motivate the learners. The present study seeks to further examine instructional strategies and academic performance of students in secondary schools.

 

1.2 Statement of the problem

Undeniably, poor academic performance has been identified as a problem in Nigerian Secondary Schools’ public examinations. For example state Educational Board (2014) analysis of percentage performance of candidates in six popular subjects in Junior Certificate Examination for 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014 revealed 52.48%, 58.38%, 51.21% and 49.82% failure in Business studies.

Akintelure (2023) blamed the problem on Business studies teachers’ insensitivity to the nature of Business studies when planning instructional activities in the classroom. In addition, according to her, Business Studies is not one of the subjects that can be mastered by mere memorization of the basic rules. Thus, it requires total determination, sound theoretical knowledge and intensive practice in application.

 

The poor performance has been traced to several factors which may include the methods of teaching employed by the teachers which may not be in line with the modern methods. Instructional strategies and academic performance of students in secondary schools.

The researcher of this current study has recently interacted with teachers and students directly involved on what they felt were the reasons for the failure of Business studies students in their JSS3 external examinations. Based on the interaction, the students and teachers gave different opinions.

 

Some students said they do not like a subject that will involve mathematics; some said they do not like the way and manner with which others blamed the failure on their teachers on the other hand said the failure was due to student lack of interest and seriousness in the subject. However, some blamed the government and school authority for refusing to provide adequate instructional materials with which they can effectively teach the subject using different methods.

Consequently, all these indicate that there is a problem that needs to be properly addressed. This trend could affect the overall performance if it is not checked. It is therefore based on these problems that the researcher explored instructional strategies and academic performance of students in secondary schools.

 

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study was to examine instructional strategies and academic performance of students in secondary schools. Specifically, the study sought to:

  1. Determine whether there is difference in academic performance in Business Studies between students taught using discussion and lecture strategies
  2. Determine whether there is difference in academic performance in Business Studies between students taught using demonstration and lecture strategies.

 

1.4 Significance of the Study

It is the researchers’ view that the findings of the study will be significant and most beneficial to students, teachers, curriculum planners and policy makers.

  • Firstly, students will benefit from the findings of the study in the sense that the most effective strategy of teaching  revealed by this study. Thus, would be used in the class room to teach the students so as to make the students perform better academically in their final examination. Instructional strategies and academic performance of students in secondary schools.
  • Secondly, the findings of this study will be of assistance to practicing teachers to select and use the most effective strategies of teaching in secondary schools. Thereby, exposing the students to meaningful learning.

 

  • The findings of this study will be of significance to curriculum planners so as to enable the curriculum planners consider the most effective method of teaching Business Studies revealed by this study when designing a curriculum for Business Studies
  • Lastly, the findings of this study will be of assistance to policy makers in the area of vocational and technical education to include appropriate in service training programme and encouraging teachers to attend seminars, workshops and conferences on the use of instructional strategies.

 

1.5 Research Hypotheses

Two null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. These include:

  1. There is no significant difference in academic performance in Business Studies between students taught using discussion and lecture strategies
  2. There is no significant difference in academic performance in Business Studies between students taught using demonstration and lecture strategies.

 

Operational Definition of Terms

Instructional Strategies: This refers to the way, techniques, methods through which information could be passed from one person (teacher) to another (learner) this means the use of diverse ways in the teaching –learning process.

Academic Performance: This refers to the out come of the learners efforts in the continuous assessment, test or examination in Business Studies.

 

Discussion strategy: This refers to the way the teacher used in disseminating information which involves interaction between the teacher and the learner.

Lecture strategy: In brief, this refers to the method which involves the passive leaning where the teacher teaches large number of leaner.

Demonstration strategy:   This refers to the method that involves participate and use of instructional material in the teaching-learning process.

Secondary School: In brief, this is the second stage of education in the educational system.

 

Conclusions

        Based on findings, the following conclusion was drawn:

  1. There is a significant difference in academic performance in Business Studies between students taught using discussion and lecture strategies.
  2. There is a significant difference in academic performance in Business studies students taught using demonstration and lecture strategies.

                              

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Peter Hezekiah

I am Peter Hezekiah, a Nigerian. A graduate of Economics/Education. I'm the Editor in projectboss.com.ng (A online company that deals with writing of final year project and provision of project materials of any topic to final year project students). My personal email is lawsonpeter10@gmail.com. My personal number; +2347068634102

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