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Title Page





Table of Contents



1.1     Background to the study

1.2     Statement of the Problem

1.3     Purpose of the Study

1.4     Research Questions


1.5     Research Hypotheses

1.6     Significance of the study

1.7     Delimitation of the Study

1.8     Limitation of the Study

1.9     Definition of Terms




3.1     Research Design

3.2     Area for the study

3.3    Population for the study

3.4     Sampling and Sampling Technique

3.5     Instrumentation


3.6     Instrument Validation

3.7     Administration of Instrument

3.8     Scoring of the Instrument

3.9     Method of Data Analysis



4.1     Data Presentation and Analysis

4.2     Discussion of Result



5.1     Summary

5.2     Conclusion

5.3     Recommendations

5.4     Suggestions for further study






1.2  Background to the Study

Insecurity in secondary schools in Nigeria is a critical issue that has garnered significant attention due to its detrimental impact on the education system and the well-being of students and staff. Specifically, the term “insecurity” in this context encompasses a range of threats, including violence, theft, bullying, and other forms of misconduct that compromise the safety and security of the school environment. This issue has far-reaching implications for the quality of education, student retention, and the overall development of young people in Nigeria.

Moreover, understanding the issues, prospects, and potential solutions to insecurity in secondary schools is crucial for addressing this pressing concern (Offor, Chukwuemeka & Nwaru (2023).

Insecurity connotes different meanings such as: absence of safety; danger; hazard; uncertainty; lack of protection, and lack of safety (Ojo, 2018). Beland (2021), insecurity is “the state of fear or anxiety stemming from a concrete or alleged lack of protection.” It refers to lack or inadequate freedom from danger.


In addition, Achumba (2019) defines insecurity from two perspectives. Firstly, insecurity is the state of being open or subject to danger or threat of danger, where danger is the condition of being susceptible to harm or injury. Secondly insecurity is the state of being exposed to risk or anxiety, where anxiety is a vague unpleasant emotion that is experienced in anticipation of some misfortune. These definitions of insecurity underscore a major point that those affected by insecurity are not only uncertain or unaware of what would happen but they are also vulnerable to the threats and dangers when they occur.

Nigeria, as a country, has been grappling with various security challenges over the years. These challenges have permeated different sectors of society, including the educational system.



In recent times, secondary schools in Nigeria have experienced an upsurge in insecurity incidents, ranging from attacks by armed groups to cases of indiscipline among students. These incidents have led to a pervasive sense of fear and vulnerability within the school community, hindering the pursuit of quality education and posing a threat to the overall stability of the educational environment.

One of the key issues contributing to insecurity in Nigerian secondary schools is the prevalence of societal unrest and conflict. Nigeria has faced internal conflicts and tensions that have spilled over into various aspects of daily life, including educational institutions. The impact of these conflicts on schools has been profound, leading to disruptions in academic activities and creating an atmosphere of uncertainty and fear among students and teachers.


Furthermore, inadequate security measures within school premises have exacerbated the problem of insecurity. Many secondary schools in Nigeria lack sufficient security infrastructure and personnel to effectively safeguard their campuses. This deficiency leaves schools vulnerable to external threats and compromises the safety of those within the school community.

In addition to external threats, internal factors such as student indiscipline and bullying also contribute significantly to insecurity within secondary schools. Cases of student-on-student violence, harassment, and intimidation have become prevalent, creating an environment that is hostile and unsafe for learning and personal development.


Despite these challenges, there are prospects for addressing insecurity in Nigerian secondary schools. Without reservation, one such prospect lies in fostering collaboration between relevant stakeholders, including government agencies, educational authorities, community leaders, parents, and students themselves. By working together, these stakeholders can develop comprehensive strategies aimed at enhancing security within school environments.

Undeniably, effective learning of the Nigerian Child can only be achieved in a secured and conducive learning environment that will necessitate emotional stability. According to Dibiaand Obi (2012), the academic success of students depends largely on their emotional stability.

Insecure learning environment puts the Nigerian students in stressful states that can affect students’ behavior and also impede learning. Certainly, there is a need to overcome these security challenges by the Nigerian child for efficient and effective learning becomes fundamental. It is therefore on this foundation that this study seeks to establish the issues, prospects and solutions to insecurity in Secondary Schools in Nigeria.


1.2   Statement of the Problem

In Nigeria, the issue of security has occupied center stage, since the country’s return to democracy in 1999. And on daily basis, the media has continued to highlight and discuss the incessant cases of security threats ranging from ethno-religious violence. Also, communal clashes, youth unrest, religious extremism, election violence, insurgency, terrorism, cattle rustling. Furthermore, suicide bombing, armed robbery, kidnapping, riots, and other forms of social vices which plagued and threatened socio-political and economic survival of Nigeria as a democratic state. Several factors are responsible for incessant insecurity as observed by (Fati, Hassan, Shafiu, Umar, Siraj and Ahmad, 2023) including but not limited to weak security system corruption, unemployment, porous borders, poverty, and religious extremism, and so on.

Research into the dynamics of insecurity in Nigeria has indicated that Insecurity not only impedes education, it also causes infrastructural and facilities decay and poor enrolment of children.

Furthermore, according to UNICEF, about 10.5 million children aged between 5-14 years are out of school in Nigeria. And the statistics are worst in Northern Nigeria with about 60% net attendance rate (Fati et al 2023). Thus, this indicates that most Schools in Northern Nigeria are not safe. In response to the challenges, the government has designed various policies and reform programmes to curtail the menace. However, despite all efforts by government and government and NGOs the situation is very bad. Therefore, based on this background, this study aimed to examine the issues, prospects and solutions to insecurity in Secondary Schools in Nigeria.


1.3   Objectives of the Study

The general purpose of this study is to examine the issues, prospects and solutions to insecurity in Secondary Schools in Nigeria. Specifically, the objectives include:

  1. To understand the impacts of security challenges on Nigerian students’ learning.
  2. To provide solutions to the problems of insecurity in secondary schools in Nigeria.
  3. To examine the prevalence of insecurity in secondary schools in Nigeria.
  4. To investigate if parents and teachers significantly differ on impact of insecurity on attendance of school pupils in Nigeria.


1.4  Research Questions

Several reports by the print and electronic media on insecurity in the country has showed insignificant empirical evidence. Based on this knowledge gap therefore, the study raised the following questions:

  1. What are the impacts of security challenges on Nigerian students’ learning?
  2. Are there solutions to the problems of insecurity in secondary schools in Nigeria?
  3. What is the prevalence of insecurity in secondary schools in Nigeria?
  4. Do Parents and teachers significantly differ on impact of insecurity on attendance of school pupils in Nigeria?


1.5   Research Hypotheses

The following hypothetical statements were tested for the purpose of this study.

  1. There is a significant impacts of security challenges on Nigerian students’ learning
  2. There is a significant correlation between parents and teachers’ difference on the effect of insecurity on secondary school in Nigeria.


Based on the findings, it has been discovered that insecurity is caused both by internal and external factors including the porousness of schools and the country’s borders, illiteracy, unemployment, bad governance, poverty, weak security and judiciary, and so on. Some of the security challenges that negatively impacted secondary Schools in Niger State include but are not limited to armed banditry and robbery, kidnapping, communal clashes; farmer-herder conflict, and so on.

Generally, insecurity has impacted negatively on the Secondary Schools because lives and property were lost. Also, low enrolment of students, death of students, low manpower, the effect on students’ performance, and infrastructural decay.


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Joselyn Nya

My Name is Joselyn Nya A Publisher in Project Boss Team. I'm a Nigerian I'm a graduate/Educational Researcher. Project Boss Team. We are the best for Project materials and project writing services. Email:

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