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Title Page


Approval Page




Table of Contents

List of Tables

List of Appendices



1.1       Background to the Study

1.2       Statement of the Problem

1.3       Purpose of the Study

1.4       Research Questions


1.5       Hypotheses

1.6       Significance of the Study

1.7       Scope of the Study

1.8       Definition of Terms



2.1       Theoretical Framework

2.2       Conceptual Review

2.3       Review of Empirical Studies

2.4       Summary of Literature Review


CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD                                                                

3.1       Research Design

3.2       Area of the Study

3.3       Population of the Study

3.4       Sample and Sampling Technique


3.5       Instrumentation

3.5.1    Validation of the Instrument

3.5.2           Reliability of the Instrument

3.6       Procedure for Data Collection

3.7       Method of Data Analysis



4.1       Answering the Research Questions

4.2       Testing the Hypotheses

4.3       Summary of Findings

4.4       Discussion of Findings


5.1       Summary

5.2       Educational Implications of the Findings

5.3       Conclusion

5.4       Recommendations

5.5       Limitations of the Study

5.6       Suggestions for further Study







Teachers are essential in the entire educational system of any nation and are pivots on which education wheels revolve. Ashimole (2013) emphasized that teaching and learning depends largely on teachers, and that it is on teachers‟ number, quality and devotion that rest the effectiveness of all educational arrangements, development and growth. Similarly Akinsolu (2012) observed that teachers are vital pre– requisites for students‟ attainment of educational goals and objectives.

The Federal Republic of Nigeria in the National Policy on Education (FRN, 2016) also recognized the importance of teachers by stating that no nation‟s education system can be greater than the standard of their teachers. Therefore, teachers remain the major factor in any educational system, and their quality of teaching is undoubtedly one of the most important factors shaping the teaching /learning and achievement of students Fenstermacher & Richardson, (2017).

The teacher is ultimately responsible for translating educational policies and principles into actions based on practice during interaction with the students. Researches abound on contributions of teachers to educational achievements of students (Mushtaq & Kahn, 2012).



Teaching involves much more than the importation of knowledge to the children in a teacher’s classroom. To encourage study habit and academic achievement, children need to know beyond book know-how. Study habit is as old as man himself. In primary and secondary schools, study habit aids memorization.

A student who has a positive attitude is likely going to perform better than the one who is otherwise. If study habit and teacher teaching skills are important to the proper development and attainment of the individual, no effort will be too much to expand in looking at the impact this variables can have on the study habit. We should not lose sight of the fact that adequate academic performance and achievement of the students is the dream of every parent who spends money on the children’s education. This work attempts to study teaching skills and student study habit in biology.


Teaching skills are the skills or abilities of teachers to explain  concepts  related  to  learning  material   Teaching skills  are  pedagogical  competences  of  a  teacher.  Pedagogic competence is the way teachers teach and regulate the learning system in the classroom by establishing good interactions with students. Teachers’ pedagogical competence is one’s ability to teach which includes various aspects related to the science of educating as well as basic teaching skills  Karron G,  (2015).

A career in teaching involves planning lessons for various age groups and providing instruction in the classroom. Teachers must also interact with principals and other administrators to ensure the teacher is meeting the mission of the school and having positive educational impact on the students. To do this, teachers will need a combination of hard and soft skills.


Teacher skills are those necessary for creating lesson plans, instructing students. Some of these skills may be innate to the teacher’s personality, but teachers may learn some as a result of formal education or on-the-job experience. With these skills, teachers learn to work with children to develop their knowledge and critical thinking lewis (2017).

Kyriacou (2013) also defines teaching skills as discrete and coherent activities by teachers which foster pupil learning.


Adeyemo (2012) stated that there are six great teaching skills namely reinforcement, varying the stimulus, presentation skill, illustrating and use of example, communication and questioning. By giving reinforcement, the students would complete tasks very well in a short period of time.


One of the most important elements of the education process, teachers must have some important competences for in-class and out-class interactions. One of the most important of these competences is communication.  Teachers should be model to the society primarily to children with their knowledge, skills, attitudes and habits, and must assume the responsibility for raising them as model people.

Teachers’ showing sensitivity in the classroom interaction, being ready for children and supporting the children’s learning are some necessary basic features Yarar and Dincer, (2015). However, a majority  of  new-beginning  teachers  are  experiencing  difficulties  in  reaching  students  and  having effective  communication  with  the  environment   Saban  and  Akbaslı, ( 2016).  Effective communication affects the learning environment.

Effective  communication  skills have  an important role  in  terms  of  professional  and  personal  characteristics  of  the  teacher.  Because  in  general,  the learning  process  is  a  process  of  communication.  In this process, meaningful message exchange is related to teacher qualifications Pehlivan, (2015).


The teachers’ perceiving their own behaviors in order to establish a positive relationship and being able to predict the response of students are required for effective communication. Teachers make the students feel their positions not only verbally but also with their body language and must use non-verbal communication skills to enable interaction and communication with the environment. In order to  open  channels  of  communication,  the  teachers  should  be  smiling,  affectionate,  patient, reliable, objective, supporters, tolerant  and they  should use  the correct  gestures  Yesil,( 2017). Teachers must use a clear and concise language in communications, and must utilize voice and stress effectively Sonmez, (2012).


Teacher’s Questioning are useful for effective planning of classroom participation activities, for designing homework assignments, and for writing examinations Good & Brophy, (2020). Effective questioning is a real compliment to the instructional skills. It shows the ability to understand the student’s real needs. Effectiveness in questioning is a powerful learned skill that aids a good study habit.

Harrison,(2015). Since, the days of Socrates, asking questions to assess students understanding has been a core component of teaching-learning process, Black (2017). From the foregoing, it is obvious that one of the most common and prominent classroom activity is the act of teacher questioning and since, the teaching and learning processes always end in assessment, in order to accurately assess the students appropriately in teaching and learning of economics, the teachers must be effective in the way they structure and distribute their questions.


Questions typically communicate a specific purpose related to identified content and context, and are usually intended to elicit an answer. But additionally, a question also conveys a more general indirect request Clarke and Wan, (2013). This indirect request implies: Think about it! That is, reflection can be triggered through the use of questions. An individual’s response to the attempted initiation of reflection depends on situational factors and individual conditions, such as prior experiences and knowledge. With the help of questions, teachers can invite students to follow and even participate in the teacher’s externalized way of thinking and thereby model both reasoning and reflection for positive study habit Walsh & Sattes, (2017).


In general, research shows that instruction involving questioning is more effective than instruction without questioning Marzano, Pickering and Pollock, (2012). Questioning can be an enormously powerful weapon in the instructors arsenal, but can be equally as ineffective if not applied with diligence Paul, (2016)

Good pedagogical skills or procedures require that the teacher spreads questions to all students such that all students have equal opportunity to participate in the lesson. This study aimed to examine the influence of teaching skills on student study habit in biology in secondary schools.




The Hallmark of any teaching is centered on professional methodology especially in the area of presenting, skills and techniques. Student’s study habits, also determine a lot in the area of academic achievement in biology. Some students find it difficult to engage in serious study that can produce credible academic achievement and result oriented study.


No matter how serious a student is in the study, if teaching skill is poor it will still affect study habit. In other words, both study habits and teaching skills are expected to harmoniously completing one another to produce effective study habit in biology.

Therefore, the ability of study effective is important for any student success in school. Many capable students at all level of education may experience frustration and even failure in school not because they lack the ability but because the teachers do not have adequate teaching skills.

Good teaching skills benefits students beyond improving their study habit. Students who have been exposed to good teaching skills are more likely to experience increase feelings of competence and confidence as they learn. Lack of these skills deprives the student understanding the subject matter. This study sought to investigate and proffer solution to influence of teaching skills on student study habit in biology in secondary schools.



The main purpose of this study is to examine influence of teaching skills on student study habit in biology in secondary schools. Specifically, the study was planned to:

  1. To determine the influence of reinforcement as a teaching skills and student study habit in biology.
  2. To examine the influence of communication as teaching skills and student study habit in biology.
  3. To examine the influence of questioning as a teaching skill and student study habit in biology



  1. What is the influence of reinforcement as a teaching skills and student study habit biology?
  2. What is the influence of communication as teaching skills and student study habit in biology?
  3. What is the influence of questioning as a teaching skills and student study habit in biology?



  1. There is no significant relationship between reinforcement as a teaching skill and student study habit in biology.
  2. There is no significant relationship between communication as a teaching skills and student study habit in biology.
  3. There is no significant relationship between questioning as a teaching skill and student study habit in biology.



The study will benefit the following:

Ministry of education will benefit from this study, in making sure that professionally trained teachers are recruited and appointed to teach in both Junior and Senior High schools nationwide, Inspectorate division will use the import of this study to increase their rate of inspection of teachers with a view improving teaching skills.


Principals will use the result of this study in making sure that experienced and professional teachers are designated to teach certificate classes, Educational Researchers will use this study especially empirical literature to extend frontier of knowledge in teaching and learning of biology and this study will improve service delivery and effective use of Instructional materials.


This study will also help the student have good study habits, make a child to have good self-image of himself and will provide the teachers with insight on the different diverse teaching skill as a basis for improvement in their instructional practice so that they can enhance performance.


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Joselyn Nya

My Name is Joselyn Nya A Publisher in Project Boss Team. I'm a Nigerian I'm a graduate/Educational Researcher. Project Boss Team. We are the best for Project materials and project writing services. Email:

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