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INFLUENCE OF MOTIVATIONAL STRATEGIES AND EFFECTIVE TEACHING OF BIOLOGY IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

INFLUENCE OF MOTIVATIONAL STRATEGIES AND EFFECTIVE TEACHING OF BIOLOGY IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

Background to the study

Indeed, the increasing awareness of the importance of education to the upliftment of the individual and societal standards has awakened in people and nations. A conscious effort at devoting their meager resources to acquiring qualitative education.

Motivation plays an important role in the promotion of teaching and learning excellence. Generally, motivated teachers are more likely to motivate students to learn in the classroom. Also, to ensure the implementation of educational reforms and feelings of satisfaction and fulfillment.

Compared with other professions, teachers across various countries, school contexts, and subject fields exhibit higher levels of emotional symptoms. According to Dai and Sternberg (2014), high levels of job dissatisfaction, stress. And burnout can negatively influence motivation and job performance. According to Gorham and Millete, (2017) teachers who report low levels of motivation tend to perceive their students motivation levels as low. Teachers are arguably the most important group of professionals for our nation‘s future. Influence of motivational strategies and effective teaching of biology in secondary schools.

Michaelowa (2012) in her study on analysis of the key determinants of teacher motivation in the developing country context. Found that large class size, double-shifting, rural location, high educational attainment. Also, active parental involvement negatively correlated with teacher motivation in these countries. She further found that the level of communication between teachers and school managers. Had no statistically significant impact on teacher motivation.

 

Ikenyiri, and Ihua-Maduenyi (2011) believe that organizations should implement remuneration systems. That encompass both financial and non-financial aspects as this would ensure the satisfaction of different employees’ needs. Thus, increasing levels of employee commitment and performance. Non-financial remuneration systems include factors such as recognition, promotion, increased responsibilities, and personal growth.

 

Recent studies have shown that while biological needs play a role in motivation. Much of what drives motivation to do or not do something comes from the need to feel effective and demonstrate mastery of the environment. (Harter, 1981; 1882; Deci & Ryan, 2015; Weist et al, 2018; White, 2012). Influence of motivational strategies and effective teaching of biology in secondary schools.

In his work on drivers of motivation. White (2012) challenged the traditional theories of motivation that posited. That the basis of behavior is grounded on the desire to satisfy biological needs. By arguing that it is in fact curiosity and desire to explore that underly motivation to do something.

 

However, despite problems with a precise definition of motivation, a number of scholars have attempted to define motivation. According to Louw and Edwards (2017), motivation is something that initiates, sustains and directs thinking and behaviour.

To Farrant (2011), motivation is that which causes us to act. Dennis (2013) defined motivation as the force which spurs us on to satisfy some need. Which can be internal or external. Dworetzky (2018) said motivation is a word which comes from the Latin word motivum which refers to the reason something has moved.

 

To Dworetzky, therefore, motivation refers to any state or condition that moves an organism to act. Mwamwenda (2016) expands the concept of motivation when he defines motivation as an energizer or a driving force, or an urge that causes an individual to want to engage in certain behaviour.

 

Hayes (2014) states that motivation is a state of arousal while Borich and Tombari (2010) define motivation as any activity-inducing drive. Dembo (2014) referred to motivation as the desire to achieve a particular goal. All the above definitions therefore imply that motivation is therefore a force that drives a person to act or behave in a particular way.

Psychologists, including Skemp (2011). Believe that motivation is mostly and purely psychological in nature and because of this, it can sustain performance. Skemp (2017) further stated that motivation can sustain the learning of mathematics if viewed in the context of a cycle which he called the motivational cycle. Using the above pictorial representation of the motivation cycle. Skemp (2017) draws our attention to the fact that effective motivation first and foremost, derives its roots from a felt need. Such a need could be internally or externally generated.

 

A motivation -sensitive teacher would then create conditions. That help learners to see the satisfaction of his/her felt need not only as a possibility but as a reality. If these conditions are established making the learner enthusiastic or more interested in his/her learning in order to ensure the satisfaction of his/her felt need. The enthusiasm or interest would constitute the drive. The drive would be the energizing force to enable the learner to work even harder to satisfy his/her need or goal.

 

INFLUENCE OF MOTIVATIONAL STRATEGIES AND EFFECTIVE TEACHING OF BIOLOGY IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

Statement of the Problem

School teachers in Nigeria have complained of government inability to satisfy their needs shelter, home, food etc. This makes it difficult for the teacher to manage his class effectively. Besides, government officials from ministry of education, parents, and members of the community where they teach do not have respect for them. To enhance their economy and improve their living standards most of them engage in other business ventures during the school period.

The time and energy devoted to the business affect commitment to duty as a teacher and consequently hinders the performance of the students. Influence of motivational strategies and effective teaching of biology in secondary schools.

 

Moreover, whenever teachers are not adequately taken care of. Especially, with regards to regular and prompt payment of their salaries and other entitlements. Also, their attitude to work automatically changes. They refuse to obey laid down rules for their work. They could come to work. Instead of teaching, many of them resort to discussing their personal problems in their staff rooms and offices. This study is therefore sought to examine motivational strategies and effective teaching of Biology in secondary schools.

 

Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of motivational strategies and effective teaching of Biology in secondary schools. Specifically, the study sought to:

  1. Determine the influence of prompt payment of teachers’ salary and effective teaching of Biology in secondary schools.
  2. Examine the influence of teachers’ promotion effective teaching of Biology in secondary schools.

 

Significance of the Study

It is anticipated that the study will: Provide school teachers and head teacher with information about motivation and factors are affecting it. This will be used to improve their influences and management approaches. Provide public secondary schools administrators with insights on correct management styles that will improve teachers’ performance.

Provide useful information to the Ministry of Education on how to develop best education management practices and policies to enhance motivation of teachers in public secondary schools. Stimulate further research on appropriate practices. Thus, that will enhance motivation and effectiveness among employees thus improving productivity and develop commitment of public servants.

 

Research Hypotheses

           The following research hypotheses guided the study;

  1. There is no significant influence of prompt payment of teachers’ salaries and effective teaching of Biology among secondary school teachers in Ukanafun Local Government Area
  2. There is no significant influence of teachers’ promotion and effective teaching of Biology among secondary school teachers in Ukanafun Local Government Area.

 

Limitation of the Study

The researcher encountered some limitation to the scope of the study

Availability of research materials: The research material available to the researcher was insufficient, thereby limiting the study.

Time: the time frame allocated for the study could not enhance wider courage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.

 

1.8     Operational Definitions of Terms

Motivation: is a force that drives a person to act or behave in a particular way.

Motivational Strategies: are tactics, techniques, or approaches to encourage learners or students to participate in the teaching and learning process.

Effective Teaching: is define as the ability to improve students achievement

Payment of Teachers’ Salaries: these are all the entitlement due for teachers at the end of the month or school session.

Promotion of Teachers’: teacher promotion is an important issue in school administration that deserves more academic attention.

 

POINTS FOR FURTHER READING

What are the factors affecting teaching and learning of biology in secondary schools?

Relationship between motivation and academic performance.

What is the importance of motivation in biological science?

importance of motivation for students.

What is the importance of teaching biology at secondary level?

What are the motivational strategies in teaching?

 

CONCLUSION

Findings on motivational strategies  in secondary schools in Ukanafun Local Government Area  indicates widespread low or decreasing levels of motivation, resulting in job dissatisfaction among teachers and low student performance. The findings also revealed that sizeable percentages of secondary school teachers are poorly motivated in the study area and even when the provision for motivation is well enshrined in the teachers’ working document by the federal government it is not still utilized by schools. Influence of motivational strategies and effective teaching of biology in secondary schools.

The study also revealed that teachers facing heavy workloads need sufficient motivational supports in order to sustain their effort and professional conduct on the job. If teachers’ workload is greater than teachers’ motivational supports, teacher motivation is threatened.

Unfortunately, the literature and questionnaire confirmed that this occurs in many developing countries, therefore stretching teacher motivation thin.

 

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Joselyn Nya

My Name is Joselyn Nya A Publisher in Project Boss Team. I'm a Nigerian I'm a graduate/Educational Researcher. Project Boss Team. We are the best for Project materials and project writing services. Email: admin@projectboss.com.ng

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