INFLUENCE OF FAMILY BACKGROUND ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN ECONOMICS

INFLUENCE OF FAMILY BACKGROUND ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN ECONOMICS
INFLUENCE OF FAMILY BACKGROUND ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN ECONOMICS

INFLUENCE OF FAMILY BACKGROUND ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN ECONOMICS

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1.  Background of the Study

The United Nations Report (2010) highlighted education as a basic right and need which is significant in the accomplishment of the second goal of the Millennium Development Goals. This is because good education guarantees skilled and dynamic citizens.

Family backgrounds have been of great important in shaping the performance of children in schools worldwide. This is because; academic performance is usually as a result of motivation that children get from the people they interact with in their initial stages of life.

 

A study conducted in the U.S.A by Rouse and Barrow (2006) revealed that years of schooling completed and educational achievement of students, varied widely by family backgrounds.

The responsibility of training a child always lies in the hand of the parents. This statement agrees with the common assertion of sociologist that education can be an instrument of cultural change which is being taught from home is relevant in this discuss. Therefore, it is not out of place to imagine that parental socio–economic background can have possible effects on the academic achievement of children in school (Ogunshola and Adewale, 2012).

Lisa (2003) in support of the above statement believed that whatsoever affect the development environment of children would possibly affect their education or disposition to it. It will therefore, not be out of place to say that parental status is one of such variables.

When a woman’s nutritional status improves, so does the nutrition of her young children. Parents of different occupation classes often have different styles of child rearing, different ways of disciplining their children and different ways of reacting to their children. These differences do not express themselves consistently as expected in the case of every family; rather they influence the average tendencies of families for different occupational classes (Rothestein, 2004 in Ogunshola and Adewale, 2012).

Families in general and parents in particular, are therefore, the most important support system available to the child. The strongest factor in modelling a child’s personality or behaviour is his relationship with his parents. Coleman (2005) proposed that family influence can be separated into components such as economic, human and social capital.

 

INFLUENCE OF FAMILY BACKGROUND ON THE ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN ECONOMICS

Hence, a family’s socio-economic status correlates with academic achievements of their children at secondary level. Ibalaoro (2012) indicate that the socio-economic status of a student is based on family income, parental educational level and parental occupation.

Rouse and Barrow (2016) found out that students who came from less disadvantaged families had higher average test scores and were more likely to have never been held back a grade as compared to students from the more disadvantaged families.

However, they highlighted that it was not clear to reflect the causal effect of family backgrounds on the child’s educational achievement which creates a gap that this study sought to fill by finding out the influence of family backgrounds on the students’ academic performance.

 

1.2  Statement of the Problem

            Academic performance which is measured by examination result is one of
the major goals of schooling. Hoyle (2003) argued that schools are established with the aim of imparting knowledge and skill to those who go through them. However, behind all these is the idea of enhancing good academic performance. Though the school is responsible for the experience that makes up students’ life during school periods yet the parents play tremendous roles in building the personality of the child.

 

According to Udida, Ukwayi and Ogodo (2012), the home has influence on the child’s psychological, emotional, social and economic state. Also the family background and context of a child can affect his/her reaction to life situation and level of academic performance.

Hence, whatever affects the developmental environment of the child would possibly affect his/her education or disposition to it. Family background is one of such variables. There is a general believe that children from high socio-economic status background are better exposed to a learning environment at home because of provision and availability of extra learning facilities.

While children from low socio-economic status background do not have access to extra learning facilities hence the opportunity to get to the top of their educational ladder may not be very easy.

 

Furthermore, the ability to adjust academically is important to success in school as it is an indicator of the student’s ability to face the problem resulting from fulfilling his/her academic needs. Students who cannot adjust academically find learning difficult.

Such students struggle academically and are at higher risk of school avoidance and behaviour problems. Ideally school is a place that should make students feels competent and successful which breeds motivation and self-confidence. For the students struggling academically however, school is a place that only serves to reinforce his already low-self-esteem. Hence such pupils may attempt to avoid the feelings of failure by avoiding school or getting involved in maladjusted behaviours.

 

1.3   Objective of the Study

            The primary objective of this research is to examine the influence of family background on the academic performance of students in Economics with reference to Minna educational zone. The specific objectives are to:

  1. Find out if there is relationship between parental educational level and student’s academic performance in Economics;
  2. Determine the influence of parental income on students’ academic performance in Economics.
  3. Find out if there is any significant relationship between parental level of motivation and students’ academic performance in Economics.

 

1.4    Research Questions

 

  1. Is there any relationship between parental educational level and student’s academic performance in Economics?
  2. What is the influence of parental income on students’ academic performance in Economics?
  3. Is there any significant relationship between parental level of motivation and students’ academic performance in Economics?

 

1.5   Research Hypotheses

 

HO1: There is no relationship between parental educational level and student’s academic performance in Economics

HO2: There is no significant influence of parental income on students’ academic performance in Economics

HO3: There is no any significant relationship between parental level of motivation and students’ academic performance in Economics

 

1.6 Significance of the Study

            This research will be of great benefit to Economic teachers, school administrators, psychologist and counselors, Government and researchers. Firstly, yhe findings will assist teachers in determining how best to assist students to adjust well in school and also to be conscious that students family background differ hence be flexible in their teaching method to accommodate all.

Secondly, the findings will also assist school administrators to design and implement policies to improve the students’ performance and the quality of education by changing the attitude of students towards learning.

 

The findings will assist psychologists and counsellors on how to counsel students of different family backgrounds with their unique problems.

The government will benefit by realizing the need to enhance the proper monitoring of schools. Findings from this study will help government to come out with educational policies that has the potential to influence the relationship between family background and students learning.

Finally, the research will serve as reference material to researchers as well as students wishing to embark on similar research. The research will form part of reference material in the school library of Niger State College of Education and the state.

 

1.7   Scope and Limitations of the Study

            This research is based on the influence of family background on the academic performance of students in Economics with reference to Minna Educational Zone. This research will be limited to the analysis based on the questionnaire to be administered as well as diverse literature that has direct bearing on the subject of the study.

Other limitations of the study are inability of the researcher to cover the entire population of the study, money and time constraints.

 

1.7   Definition of Terms

  1. Influence: Refers to the power to change or affect someone or something or the power to cause changes without directly influencing them.
  2. Family Background: Refers to family education, experience or persons family/social/cultural/educational/class background.
  3. Academic Performance: Evaluation of students’ expected performance on academic activities in the classroom.
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