Influence of Entrepreneurship Education on Social Studies Education Students

Influence of Entrepreneurship Education on Social Studies Education Students
Influence of Entrepreneurship Education on Social Studies Education Students

INFLUENCE OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION ON SOCIAL STUDIES EDUCATION STUDENTS: A CASE STUDY OF TERTIARY INSTITUTIONS IN AKWA IBOM STATE

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ABSTRACT

The main purpose of this study was to examine the influence of entrepreneurship education on social studies education students in tertiary institutions in Akwa Ibom State. Three research questions and three research hypotheses were set to guide the study.

The study adopted a descriptive survey research design. The population of this study consists of all the colleges of education and Universities in Akwa Ibom State. For the purpose of this study, one University (University of Uyo) and one College of Education (Akwa Ibom State College of Education, Afaha Nsit) were used.

 

Final year students were used in both institutions. The instrument used for collecting data for the purpose of this study was a questionnaire. Thereafter, the data collected through the use of questionnaire was analysed using descriptive statistics of frequency count for answering the research questions and chi-square test for the hypotheses formulated.

The findings of the study revealed that, entrepreneurship education influences social studies students in acquisition of skills, abilities and competencies equip the beneficiary with self-reliance which is necessary for societal development. Conclusions and recommendations were put forward by the researcher.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background to the Study

Entrepreneurship is a multifaceted phenomenon. Gangaiah and Viswanath (2014) explained the genesis of term ‘entrepreneurship’ from the French word ‘entreprendre’ which originally means an organizer of musical or other entertainments.

The word has been in use since the 16 century. In Middle Ages the term ‘entrepreneur’ was referred to a person who was managing large projects. He was not taking risk but was managing the projects using the resource provided (Lakeus, 2014).

Further, he added that in the 17 century the word was extended to cover architects and contractors engaged in activity, such as construction, fortification and public work.

Since entrepreneurship education is about developing the ability to act in an entrepreneurial manner, attitude and behaviors are perhaps more important than knowledge about how to run a business.

 

In addition, European Commission (2011) stated in his final report that entrepreneurship education means developing a culture which is through, for and about entrepreneurship.

Indeed, such competencies are best acquired through people-led enquiry and discovery that enable students to turn ideas into action. Thus, they are difficult to teach through traditional teaching and learning practices in which the learner tends to be a more or less passive recipient. Therefore, they require active, learner-centered pedagogies and learning activities that use practical learning opportunities from the real world.

 

Moreover, Entrepreneurship Education requires the use of active learning method that places the learner at the center of educational process and enables them to take responsibility for their own learning to experiment and learn about themselves. Thus teachers need the professional competencies to be able to guide student through the learning process rather than, as in traditional method, communicating knowledge and information mainly through ‘chalk and talk’ (European Commission, 2013).

 

Researches carried out by the European Commission (2011) shows that the core skills and values linked to entrepreneurship education are seldom a priority in initial teacher education programs.

In essence, educational entrepreneurship provides a platform for youths to transform opportunities to business ventures and to manage those ventures to become a medium for job creation for themselves and others. Therefore, the ultimate goal of educational entrepreneurship is all about increasing the student’s ability to anticipate and respond to societal changes.

 

In other words, through educational entrepreneurship, students are equipped to deploy their creativity ability for their good and benefits of the larger society. They are also empowered to take initiatives, responsibilities and risks.

Nigeria, arguably the largest and most populous African nation is not exempted from the global challenge of unemployment especially among the youths. Thus, it has been battling with increasing rate of unemployment with resultant effects of poverty, terrorism, kidnappings, prostitution and other vices (Nwagwu, 2014).

 

The education of students is interesting especially from a comparative perspective. Undoubtedly, every education system can, in some way, be improved so as to better develop the potential of human capital and the quality of future leaders, community members and employees. Ololube et al. (2013) observed that the central objective of education is to raise the level of skills, especially technical and management skills, needed to support economic growth and to provide an adequate supply of the whole range of professional expertise needed to run and develop a modern nation.

Furthermore, according to Johansen (2014), entrepreneurship education is “the promotion of different entrepreneurial capabilities, students personal qualities, their attitude towards different items in the world like ready to take actions, like innovativeness, like creativity, enthusiasm to absorb risk, self-competence and social skills”.

 

Indeed, the entrepreneurship education always support to creative certain entrepreneurial abilities like that how to start your own business and the process of innovation in the existing business.

However, from these two business oriented concepts, the educational concept of entrepreneurship is “the introduction of entrepreneurship education is to improve the academic performance, to develop the skills in the students to learn new subject and learn some basic skills like practical market skills.

 

Moreover, from perspective the GPA is the prime indicator that shows the quality of entrepreneurship education in the respective institution (Ministry of Education and Research et al, 2009).

 

From the definition of Johansen (2014), “the introduction of entrepreneurship education is to improve the academic performance, to develop the skills in the students to learn new subject and learn some basic skills like practical market skills”.

The current study will use the following definition of entrepreneurship education and academic performance that “the entrepreneurship education is the subject that improves the skills of the students like taking initiatives, willingness to accept innovative subjects in the academic, by getting involve in the practical market oriented subject and will lead to students knowledge on skills acquisition”.

In addition, the subjects of entrepreneurship or entrepreneurship education, and entrepreneurial development became the subject of discussion in every quarter and have attracted attention by the nation’s academic community and professional associations.

Certainly, literature indicate that these themes and sub-themes have centred on poverty reduction from skills acquired through education and training, and entrepreneurship for sustainable national development through self- employment, employment generation and diversification of the national economy, among others (Onojetah  2013).

 

However, inspite of fifteen years of the activities of NEEDS and the MDGs in Nigeria, unemployment is on the increase and it is a reality facing many families and communities. Therefore, this situation is getting deeper and wider in terms of its spread. Sadly, most graduates of tertiary institutions always prefer government employments which are very rare to come by.

 

Moreover, depicting this issue of unemployment, Obadan & Odusola (2010) lamented that in this 21st century, unemployment in Nigeria cut across all facets of age groups, educational strata and geographical entities.

Specifically, Ogunmade (2013) opined that the unemployment level in Nigeria was above 40%. This problem especially among graduates of tertiary institutions can be attributed to many factors such as disconnection between the curriculum content and the needs of the industries in Nigeria context.

 

Therefore, this study aims to investigate the influence of entrepreneurship education on social studies education students in tertiary institutions in Akwa Ibom State.

 

1.2    Statement of the Problem

Several graduates from Nigerian Universities today are not gainfully employed. Moreover, Nigeria is said to have one of the highest rates of youth unemployment age (15-34) in the unindustrialized world. Despite strong economic growth, youth’s full-time unemployment rate in Nigeria was put at 50% while countries like Japan, China, India, Korea, have joined community of industrialized nations by strengthening their small scale industries. Obviously, Nigeria is yet to understand the relevance of this sub-sector.

However, the Nigeria National Bureau of Statistics (2016) announced that the country’s labour statistics report put the total Nigeria unemployment rate at 10.4 percent. This report state that about 22.4m Nigerians are technically unemployed. (Inclusive of unemployed and under employed) Nigeria unemployment according to the report thus represents about 14 per cent of global unemployment.

 

1.3    Purpose of the Study

Generally, this study was to find out the influence of entrepreneurship education on social studies education students in tertiary institutions in Akwa Ibom State

Specifically, the study will attempt to:

  1. find out the most prefer nature of employment Students of Social Studies after graduation;
  2. find out the extent to which the teaching of entrepreneurship education has prepared Social Studies students for self-employment after graduation; and
  3. find out the impacts of the absence of practicals on the effectiveness of entrepreneurship education among social studies students.

 

1.4   Research Questions

                The following research questions guided the study:

  1. What is the most prefer nature of employment among Students of Social Studies after graduation?
  2. To what extent has the teaching of entrepreneurship education prepared Social Studies students for self-reliant/employment after graduation?
  3. To what extent has the absence of practicals in the teaching of entrepreneurship education affects Social Studies students’ knowledge of the course?

 

1.5   Research Hypotheses

  1. There is no significant difference between the prefer nature of employment among Students of Social Studies in tertiary institutions in Akwa Ibom State after graduation.
  2. There is no significant difference between the teaching of entrepreneurship education, Social Studies students’ desire for self-employment after graduation in Akwa Ibom State.
  3. There is no significant difference between knowledge of theory and practical aspects of entrepreneurship education among Social Studies

 

1.6   Significance of the Study

Firstly, the research work will be of great significance to students, prospective and practicing entrepreneurs. Co-operations, chief executives and other practicing managers of business and non–business organizations.

Secondly, this research work will serve as a background and catalyst to any future researchers and scholars who may wish to venture into the areas of promoting entrepreneurship education in Akwa Ibom State.

 

Also, the outcome of this research could be significance to the people with different occupations and professions.

Furthermore, the conclusion which this research may expose, could lead to improvement and efficiency in Akwa Ibom State as regard to entrepreneurship.

Lastly, the confidence level of social studies students embarking on entrepreneurship development in Nigeria will improve, and more people or the general public will agree to venture in that business.

 

1.7    Limitation of the Study

Certain constraints were encountered in the course of this research work which included limited time to carry out the research, fund, and reluctance of some respondents and dearth of literature on the influence of entrepreneurship education on social studies education students in tertiary institutions.

 

1.8    Delimitation/Scope of the Study

The geographical scope of the study will be limited to tertiary institutions in Akwa Ibom State. The aim will be the influence of entrepreneurship education on social studies education students.

 

1.9    Definition of Terms

Entrepreneurship Education: – In brief, it is the art of obtaining skills in the effective and efficient production of services.

 

Social Studies Education: In brief, social Studies Education has been identified by scholar as a potent instrument that has facilitated the attainment of national development goals through the production of responsible citizens that are contributing maximally to the growth of the society.

 

Student: In brief, a student can be defined primarily as a person enrolled in a school or other educational institution and who is under learning with goals of acquiring knowledge, developing professions and achieving employment at desired field.

 

QUESTIONNAIRE

 Please kindly indicate the appropriate answers by ticking in the options below

 

S/N PART A S/A A D S/D

 

  Nature of employment preferred after Graduation:        
  Government        
  Private        
  Self-employed        
           
  Practical demonstrations were carried out in the course of studying Entrepreneurship Education.        
  There was linkage with relevant industries in the course of studying Entrepreneurship Education        
  My study of Entrepreneurship Education along my major course of study has adequately prepared me for self-reliance (self-employment)        
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