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Title Page





Table of Contents


1.1  Background of the Study

1.2  Statement of the Problem

1.3  Purpose of the study

1.5  Significance of the study


1.6  Research Questions

1.7  Research Hypotheses

1.8  Limitation of the Study

1.9  Delimitation of the study

1.10 Operational Definition of Terms





3.1  Research Design

3.2  Area of the Study

3.3  Population of the study

3.4  Sample and Sampling Procedure


3.5  Instrumentation

3.6  Validation of Instrument

3.7  Administration of Questionnaire

3.8  Scoring of Instrument

3.9  Method of Data Analysis




4.1  Summary of Findings

4.2  Discussion of Findings




5.1  Introduction

5.2  Summary

5.3. Conclusion

5.4  Recommendation






1.1       Background to the Study

Education is the systematic training of an individual in order to bring about positive change in his or her behaviour so as to become fulfilled citizen (Angelo, 2019). Moreover, across the globe, trends in education have reflected significant increase in students’ enrolment (Ademola, 2023). This is very evident in Nigeria with an upward trend in school enrolment at all levels of education after the civil war in 1970.

Nigeria, like most of the countries across the globe has adopted and implemented to a large extent the Education For All (EFA) policy of the United Nations (UN), which has in no small measure resulted in the increased students population at all levels of education.

According to Yusuf (2015), classrooms are used as appropriate places for seeking and acquiring education usually from a teacher to the learners.



In this present study, classroom size is the population of a given class in terms of number of students per teacher. For instance, Canada, Australia, Romania, Czech Republic, USA and Slovenia has less than 30 students recommended for a standard class size; Turkey, Netherlands and Norway have 20 or less students for a standard class size; Japan and Singapore have above 30 students as a standard class size (Mokobia and Okoye, 2011). These fall within the UNESCO recommended standard (25) for number of students in a classroom.

The National Policy on Education (2013) recommended an average of 40 students per class as the standard class size in Nigeria.

Two class sizes are normally distinguishable in the educational sector. A large class size falls within 41 and above learners to one teacher while small class size is within 15-40 learners to one teacher (Aliu, 2010).

Many scholars including Yusuf (2015), Molnar (2009), Booze and Maloney (2011) and Shuaibu (2013) cited in Yusuf (2015) all support this classification of class sizes.


For many years, educators, politicians and people in general have debated on the number of students a teacher can work with effectively to ensure student’s adequate learning. Although most people would agree that having a few students to teacher ratio would benefit the students academically, many will also argue th7at it does not guarantee success and would cost school a great deal or more money.


Prior to reviewing the research, a clarification of terms associated with the research context is necessary. Students achievement applies to making sure all students have the necessary skills and knowledge to function in school so that they may also succeed as adult (National Education Association, 2010). But others see a much broader, richer, picture and the state standards as something to be met on the way to the broader picture. Three areas that fit into the broader picture are academics, essential life skills and responsibility to the community.

Specifically, the term “effective teaching” has been defined variously by researchers. Effective teaching is synonymous with teaching effectiveness and has been defined in three basic ways (Evans, 2016). These definitions include: (a) Teachers’ personality (b) Teacher-students interactions and (c) Teachers’ impact on students’ behaviour.


The presage, process and product aspect of teaching are well represented in these definitions. The presage and process aspects of teaching bear direct relationship to teachers’ personalities and teacher-student interaction. Similarly, the product aspect bears direct relationship to teacher impact on students’ behaviour (Evans, 2016).

However, Afe (2013) defined teaching effectiveness as the type of teaching characterized by the exhibition of intellectual, social and emotional stability, love for children and positive disposition towards the teaching profession and ability to inspire good qualities in students.

Ozochi (2019) affirms that there is a limit to which a teacher can effectively control, anything more than that according to him will affect the school objectives.

However, in the educational setting, class size is viewed from different perspectives. This can be classified into three (3) main sizes which is the large class size, average class size and the small class size. Most of the increase in population does not correspond with the teachers’ enrollment. This shows that there is a qualitative growth and decline in the aspect of the educational system.


Furthermore, according to Okoro (2012), class size in secondary schools ranges between 15 to 40 students per class. He argued that forty students per class is uneconomical as they do not make full use of space, and teaching materials. It is pertinent to note that average class size influence the cost of education while capital cost could be reduced by increasing the average class size in schools. Nwadini (2019), stressed that the higher the class size, the lower the cost of education. He contended however that the lower the class size; the better for educational growth and improvement in the facilities.


Moreover, evaluating instructional effectiveness has increased over time and acceptance of the need to evaluate teaching has continued to grow (Salsali, 2013). This new approach emphasizes not what one believes to be good teaching, but the emphasis is on characteristics and teacher behaviour that are conducive to expected learning outcomes for students (Papandreon, 2015).

Most studies tend to emphasize instructors’ qualities such as knowledge and organization of the subject matter, skills in instruction and personal qualities and attitude that are useful when working with students.

In addition, the premise that reducing class size can lead to improved teaching and learning is one that most teachers and parents would readily endorse (Kennedy, 2013).

The major problems schools are running into is that the funding for these small class sizes is not available, or is decreasing. Many states and school districts dealing increasingly with shortfalls in revenue are smaller classes.


Moreover, Biology teachers, typically referred to as science teachers, are highly skilled in the sciences, specifically Biology. Also, a Biology teacher goes beyond the basics of Biology to impart specific wisdom to students. Furthermore, a Biology teacher will have to have an in-depth knowledge of the subject to be able to answer questions from students and teach content contained in school standards (Serafini, 2013).

Advocates of small classes believes that small class size allow teacher to give more individualized attention to students, manage their classrooms more effectively and provide more effective instruction that leads to better students performance.

In a smaller classroom, a teacher has more time to get to know each student personality and academic strengths and weaknesses, students receive more attention and are less likely to become discipline problems with less time spent on classroom management; teachers can focus more on classroom instruction and students learning. It is on this note that the study examined the influence of class size on Biology teachers’ teaching effectiveness in secondary schools in Abak Local Government Area.


1.2       Statement of the Problem

The national policy on education revised in 2010 stipulates that the maximum teacher–student ratio is one teacher is to thirty students.  The obvious reason for this standard is to ensure that the teacher not only controls the class but also to ensure that he understands the learning capabilities of each of the learner in the classroom.

However, effective teaching and learning of Biology depends to a large extent on the class size of the students and teachers’ own knowledge of the content and ability to adequately deliver the instruction to the students. It is a known fact that effective teaching of Biology largely depends on the students’ ratio and the Biology teacher.

Literature has shown that a lot of variables may inhibit or hinder effective dissemination of knowledge to the understanding of the contents by Biology students especially at secondary school level. Some of such variables include small class size, large class size, conducive learning environment and inadequate use of instructional materials among others.


The main problem of this study is effective teaching of Biology in senior secondary schools. As the school population increases, class size increases, the performance of teacher during teaching becomes an issue. In fact, class size has become a phenomenon often mentioned in the educational literature as it has influence effective teaching of many school subjects including Biological Sciences.

It is also an administrative decision over which teachers have little or no control. In fact, with exception of a few, many studies have reported that under ideal situation, class size itself appears to be an important factor. The school population explosion also gives the educational stakeholders a state of concern because one cannot really give the actual constituent of a small, average and large class. Therefore, the study is undertaken to examine the influence of class size on Biology teachers’ teaching effectiveness in secondary schools in Abak Local Government Area.


1.3       Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of the study is to investigate the influence of class size on Biology teachers’ teaching effectiveness in Abak Local Government Area. Specifically, the study is conducted to:

  1. determine the influence of class size on Biology teachers’ teaching effectiveness in secondary schools, and
  2. examine the influence of class size in urban and rural schools on Biology teachers’ teaching effectiveness in secondary schools.


1.4       Research Questions

                        The following research questions were formulated for the study:

  1. What is the influence of class size on Biology teachers’ teaching effectiveness in secondary schools?
  2. What is the influence of class size in urban and rural schools on Biology teachers’ teaching effectiveness in secondary schools?


1.5       Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:

  1. There is no significant influence of class size on Biology teachers’ teaching effectiveness in secondary schools.
  2. There is no significant influence of class size in urban and rural schools on Biology teachers’ teaching effectiveness in secondary schools.


1.6 Significance of the Study

This study has the potential to guide the policy maker about the present scenario of education system. The outcomes of this study may improve Biology teachers’ teaching effectiveness through adopting a better policy about teachers. The study is also likely to guide for developing the education, standard for students-teacher ratio in secondary schools per class.

This study is also important such that the findings made will help teachers to identify the reasons for the academic performances of students in large classes with high population and how they can address the problems. It will provide comprehensive information for educational planners, educators, and parents on how they can assist students to cope in large classes during teaching and learning.

Lastly, the findings of this study will help teachers in managing the class size to achieve maximum academic excellence among the students.


Definition of Terms

Class Size: This refers to the number of students being taught by individual teacher in a classroom.

Small Class Size: The total number of students below 30 in a given classroom.

Average Class Size: The total number of students in a class between 1 and 50.

Large Class Size: The number of students above 50 in a class.


Teacher: In brief, this is a paid agent whose job is to transfer knowledge to learners in the society.

Biology: is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their physical structure, chemical processes, molecular interactions, physiological mechanisms, development and evolution.

Teaching Effectiveness: This is the process whereby teachers deliberately, consciously, and systematically plan activities to enable him effect a positive change in the behaviour of students.



Evident from the findings of this study is that class size significantly influences classroom discipline, engagement and communication which in turns influence teachers’ effectiveness in classroom during teaching and learning of any subject. Based on the objectives of the study, the following conclusions were drawn:

  1. There is no significant influence of class size on Biology teachers’ teaching effectiveness in secondary schools.
  2. There is no significant influence of class size in urban and rural schools on Biology teachers teaching effectiveness.


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Joselyn Nya

My Name is Joselyn Nya A Publisher in Project Boss Team. I'm a Nigerian I'm a graduate/Educational Researcher. Project Boss Team. We are the best for Project materials and project writing services. Email:

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