Research Proposals



DISCOUNT Sales!!! Get complete material at 45 percent Discount TODAY - Pay 1350 instead of ₦3000. Call/WhatsApp 07068634102



The aim of the study was to critically examine human resource adequacy and utilization in teaching in Akure South Local Government Area of Ondo State. To guide the study, four research hypotheses were formulated. A survey research design was adopted for the study. The population for the study comprises of all the junior secondary three (JS3) and teachers in all the public secondary schools in the area.


The study adopted random sampling technique to select a sample size of one hundred (100) students from five public secondary schools for the study and purposive sampling technique to select twenty teachers (20) making a total of one hundred and twenty respondent (120). The instrument used for this study was a questionnaire and raw scores of the students gotten from the school management. Data generated were analyzed using independent t-test statistical method. Findings revealed that human resource adequacy and utilization significantly influence teaching in secondary schools in Akure South Local Government Area.




1.1    Background to the study

In our society today, education has contributed towards the promotion of the economy. Generally, education is concerned with the complete development of the children so that they can grow up as people capable of taking care of their needs and the needs of the society.


As a part of general education, physical education has also contributed greatly to the knowledge and wisdom to the Nigeria education. This is the reason why it is necessary to have an up to date programme of physical education most especially in secondary school level.


According to Umoh (2010), nature only provides the raw materials in form of potentials but it is the environment and the ability of the facilitator or the teacher to make use of the available resources effectively. This is the human resource that determines the extent of development.


In view of the menace in teaching of school subjects among teachers and students in secondary schools. Deduced that human resource adequacy. Which comprises of the adequacy of competent teachers and qualification of that teacher in the facilitation of knowledge and utilization of the available instructional materials. Indeed, to attain educational goals is a problem and thus brings about poor teaching and learning.

Furthermore, Ugwuanyi (2013) citing Onyejiemezie noted that adequacy is a state of making provision for a satisfactory standard requirement in terms of teaching resource to enhance effective instructional activity in a particular subject.


The adequacy of human resources, instructional facilities, equipment and supplies as well as adequate personnel motivates the learners, increases the teacher’s efficiency and promotes the productivity of the teacher.

Indeed, human resources are the people who constitute the workforce in an organization. According to Olagboye (2004), people and knowledge, skills and attitudes in them constitute resources. Similarly, Okwori (2006) agreed with this assertion and added that expertise in technical. Also, mechanical, managerial, social and other areas potentially available for utilization in social and economic institutions constitute human resources. A secondary school as an educational institution has teaching staff, non-teaching personnel and students including their knowledge, abilities and skills as the human resources.


Essentially, the personnel within the institutions and their capabilities in contributing to productivity and achievement of institutional objectives are referred to as human resources. Teachers in secondary schools are engaged in the processing of all educational inputs, students inclusive, so that the educational institutions will be able to achieve their objectives. They disseminate knowledge and skills through teaching, contribute to advancement in knowledge and engage in community services. Their adequacy and utilization would determine the success or failure of the educational system.

The STR shows a teacher’s workload at a particular level of education. It also helps in determining the number of teaching manpower needed for a projected student’s enrolment.


Thus, it could be used to determine either teachers are over-utilized or underutilized (Afolabi, 2005). According to Padmanabhan (2001), internal efficiency refers to the number of students. Who pass from one grade to the other and complete that cycle within the stipulated period of time. It shows the relationship between input and output at a given educational level.

Lasa (2018) asserted that the success of any human endeaviour. Secondary schools inclusive, is closely related to be quality of teachers who perform the task of teaching. He added that the extent to which public education succeeds will depend to a large extent. Upon the quality of the personnel engaged in the educational process and upon the effectiveness with which the discharge individual and group responsibilities.


In another view, Nwana (2013) pointed out that the adequacy in the number of teaching staff and adequacy of teaching material influence the overall efficiency and effectiveness of an educational institution. This implies that for secondary schools. Therefore, to be effective and efficient there is need to provide adequate human and material resources.

Therefore, in assessing the cause and effect of the level of teaching and learning, the researcher considers human resource adequacy as those instrument that could tailor the level of teaching and learning outcome such as the adequacy of human resource personnel and its utilization.


Also, Udo and Edet (2012) investigated the status of human and material resources. Thus, for effective implementation of the new curriculum for secondary schools  and show that the available human resource are not equally distributed, the basic facilities are either lacking or are grossly inadequate. To compliment this study, the present research will examine the above mentioned areas. Thus, on human resource adequacy as it affects the teaching in secondary schools.



1.2    Statement of the problem

The challenges in the teaching have been a serious issue in the educational sector and have greatly gotten attention of all stakeholders. These challenges are teachers related factors, student related factors and government related factors. It is an established fact that majority of the people do not believe that human resource adequacy has much influence in the teaching.

The adequacy of human resources in secondary schools is crucial. Therefore, government of the state has been consistent in ensuring that these educational resources are available for schools.


Human and material resources make teaching and learning more understandable, meaningful and easy. These resources however make teaching and learning more effective and real.

However, criticism abounds on the adequacy of human and resources available for effective teaching in Nigeria.

Therefore, this problem of poor teaching and increasing failures in Junior Secondary certificate examination has propelled great research over the years. In the light of the above, this research focuses on human resource adequacy via: adequacy of human resource personnel and utilization of human resource personnel and teaching in secondary schools in Akure South Local Government Area.


1.3    Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of the study is to investigate the influence of human resource adequacy and utilization in teaching in secondary schools.

Specifically, the study seeks to:

  1. determine the adequacy of human resource in secondary schools.
  2. determine the utilization of human resource in secondary schools.
  3. Determine the difference in teaching with adequacy of human resource and non-adequacy of human resource adequacy in secondary schools.
  4. examine the difference in teaching with utilization and those without utilization of human resources in secondary schools.


1.4    Significance of the study

The study is significant in the following ways:

  • This study will help the government and other stakeholders to improve and provide adequate human resource.
  • This study will be of help to the educationist and curriculum planners. By furnishing them with a sound basis for effective supervision and implementation of the curriculum
  • It will serve as a reference material for students and other researchers. Who may carry out a research on same or similar topic.


1.5  Research hypotheses

  1. There is no significant of influence of human resource adequacy in secondary schools.
  2. There is no significant of influence of human resource utilization in secondary schools.
  3. There is no significant difference in the teaching with adequacy and non-adequacy of human resource adequacy in secondary schools.
  4. There is no significant difference in the teaching with utilization and those without utilization of human resource adequacy in secondary schools.


1.6    Operational definition of terms

Human resource adequacy: In brief, this is an individual, group of people that works together for a specific purpose or goal. Especially, in facilitating of knowledge example: teachers, educational administrators etc.

Adequacy: This is the quality of being at hand when needed.

Utilization: In brief, this is the act of making use of something.

Teaching: In brief, this refers to the act of showing how to do something.




This chapter deals with a review of related literature in the study which helps to add more idea to the present study.

  • Conceptual Framework
  • Theoretical Framework
  • Adequacy and non-adequacy of human resource in Teaching
  • Utilization and Non-utilization of human resource in Teaching
  • Summary of review of related literature


2.1    Conceptual Framework

Concept of Human Resource

Human resource is the set of people who make up the workforce of an organization, business sector, industry, or economy. A narrower concept is human capital, the knowledge and skills which the individuals command. Similar terms include manpower, labor, personnel, associates or simply: people. (Wikipedia).

No educational system rises above the quality of her teachers anywhere in the word. This growth and development of skill-based courses in the country largely depends on the quality. Also, adequacy of staff (teaching and non-teaching) in these areas of professional Endeavour (lrabor, 2014).


The bedrock of adequate foundation and training of needed man power in a country irrespective of area of specialization is a function of the sound products from the teacher education programme in that country.

Joselyn Nya

My Name is Joselyn Nya A Publisher in Project Boss Team. I'm a Nigerian I'm a graduate/Educational Researcher. Project Boss Team. We are the best for Project materials and project writing services. Email:

Related Articles

Back to top button
Open chat
Scan the code
Hello 👋
Welcome to projectboss 24/7customer services.