Research Proposals



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Title Page





Table of Contents



1.1    Background to the Study

1.2    Statement of the Problem

1.3    Purpose of the Study


1.4    Significance of the Study

1.5    Research Hypotheses

1.6    Limitation of the Study

1.7    Definition of Terms




3.1    Research Design

3.2    Area of the Study

3.3    Population of the Study

3.4    Sample and sampling Technique

3.5    Instrument for data collection


3.6    Validation of the Instrument

3.7    Administration of the Instrument

3.8    Scoring of the Instrument

3.9    Method of Data Analysis



4.1    Presentation of Results

4.2    Discussion of Findings



5.1    Summary

5.2    Recommendations

5.3    Conclusion

5.4    Suggestions for further study






1.1  Background to the Study

Without reservation, the academic performance of any child cannot be separated from the home environment in which the child grows up.  Moreover, healthy home background offers emotional security to child (Agholor, 2021). The investigating that has adopted refined measure of family influence on child home tended to show that they are related more strongly to academic outcome, than global measure of family background.

However, the impact of home environment on the academic achievement in school is today receiving wide acknowledgement in many educational circles within the globes. Undeniably, the attention in this factor is receiving it’s tend credence to this point of view that influence the home environment has on the child learning.

Certainly, Asaga (2016) observed that the home environment and parent occupy the most important position in the child’s educational environment and whatever he could make out in the same way.


Akinboye (2016) traced this view from the time the child is born into the family and felt that the tone of the child’s mother or child’s father interaction and the style of discipline in the family may have effect on the learning rates of the child in Biology. The child’s environment outside the school (his home background) determines the academic performance of the learning in many subjects such as Biology.



A search on academic achievement studies revealed that various variables have been identified as correlates of academic achievement of senior secondary school students in Biology (Kutnick and Layne, 2018). Research has also suggests that academic performance can be predicted through creativity testing (Hirch and Peterson, 2022).

Moreover, studies conducted on home environment in today’s modern society expect everyone to be a high achiever.  The key criteria to judge one’s true potentialities and capabilities are perhaps scholastic, academic achievement. Academic performance has become an index of a child’s future. Therefore, it is putting a great pressure on the minds of children and their parents.

However, the scholastic achievement is a function of cognitive and non cognitive aspect of personality, and is the resultant of various factors like personal, social, economic and other environmental factors. Indeed, research studies have proved that a good, supportive environment in home, school and neighbourhood could enhance a child’s scholastic achievement.


Family being the first and major agency of socialization has great influence and bearing on the development of the child. So, it is the home which sets the pattern for the child’s attitude towards people and society, aids intellectual growth in the child and supports his aspirations and achievements. A highly significant positive relationship between the variables academic achievement and family scores has been assessed (Shaha and Sharma, 2020).

An ordinary observation suggests that home environment has a great deal of changing influence either positive or negative on academic performance of students. And as such, parents play the most important roles as one of the powerful determinants in educational progress among students which may leads to success or failure. Thus, it can no longer be disputed that home involvement enhances the learning experience of the students. Home environment can create conditions, such as forces and external stimuli that affect the individual cognitive development.


Bloom (2013) opined that, learning goes on in both the home and the school and it is of significant different between these two institutions that explains much of the learning success of some students and the failure of other students. The important duty of the parents at this point is to ascertain the home and if possible improve and coordinate the school activities. So that, they can function together to achieve maximum learning experiences and help to eliminate or reduce any negative impact.

Hence, in this capacity parents can serve as a facilitator by creating a bridge between two cultures that will impact ultimate success or failure of the students in their academic performance of Biology in senior secondary school. Therefore, this study is undertaken to examine home variables and student’s academic performance in biology in senior secondary schools.


1.2    Statement of the Problem        

The main problem that attracted the attention of the researcher is the poor academic performance in Biology. Many of these problems among others are parental income, parental educational background, unconducive environment, parenting style of parents, inadequate facilities for learning etc.

Actually, the education standard in Nigeria has fallen greatly compared to that of the past. The parents and the entire society have shifted blame on the teachers for low performance in NECO, WASSCE and other examinations, while the teachers themselves blame the parents for refusing to provide their wards with the required school materials that enhance learning. Home variables and student’s academic performance in biology in senior secondary schools.


Consequently, upon the observation deterioration in the academic performance, attitude and values of secondary schools. One wonders if the high failure rate is caused by home background of parents and parenting style may be the cause of such poor performance of students in school. Since it is believed that, a good foundation for education starts from the home.

However, owning to the poor results of Nigerian candidates, almost every year, the researcher wants to examine home variables and student’s academic performance in biology in senior secondary schools.


1.3  Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study is to examine home variables and student’s academic performance in biology in senior secondary schools.

Specifically, the objectives of the study are:

  1. To find out the performance of students in Biology who comes from highly educated and not highly educated home background.
  2. To determine the performance of students in Biology whose parenting style is democratic and autocratic.


1.4  Significance of the Study

The findings of this study will aid parents to choose a better learning environment for their wards in both rural and urban areas. Thus, as this will help to increase the academic achievement of their children in schools.

It is hoped that this study will help students in the choice of school. Also aid them to see the effect of environment on the study of several subjects not in Biology only. Home variables and student’s academic performance in biology in senior secondary schools.

Therefore, this study will give an insight to the educational planners, researchers, teachers, students and the entire communities. Thus, to give useful suggestions on how to eradicate the negative form or deference and encourage positive influence to enhance high level of academic performance of students in secondary schools.


1.5    Research Hypotheses     

The following research hypotheses were formulated to guide the researcher in the study:

  1. There is no significant difference between academic performance of students in Biology who comes from highly educated and not highly educated home background.
  2. There is no significant difference between academic performance of students in Biology whose parenting style is democratic and autocratic.


Definition of Terms   

Home Variables: This refers to the variables which relate to home environment which students stay for their secondary education.

Highly Educated Parents: These are parents with higher educational qualification or attainment which can read and write, and can help their children to attain their educational goals.


Not Highly Educated Parents: In brief, these are parents with low or no educational qualifications which their children live with them at home for their secondary education.

Autocratic Home: Home environment which decision about student’s education is made by the parents without consulting the children (students).



The study of home variables and student’s academic performance in Biology is necessary. This is because the home in which a child comes from is an important factor in the child’s academic achievement. It is through the home that a child learns certain basic and social rules. Therefore, all parents irrespective of home environment should make their children to be educated for their better future.


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Peter Hezekiah

I am Peter Hezekiah, a Nigerian. A graduate of Economics/Education. I'm the Editor in (A online company that deals with writing of final year project and provision of project materials of any topic to final year project students). My personal email is My personal number; +2347068634102

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