HOME VARIABLES AND PUPILS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS

HOME VARIABLES AND PUPILS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS
HOME VARIABLES AND PUPILS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS

HOME VARIABLES AND PUPILS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgments

Abstract

Table of Contents

 

CHAPTER ONE      – INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background of the Study

1.2     Statement of the Problem

1.3     Purpose of the Study

1.4     Research Questions

 

1.5     Research Hypotheses

1.6     Significance of the study

1.7     Delimitation of the study

1.8     Limitation of the study

1.9     Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO – REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

 

CHAPTER THREE – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1     Research Design

3.2     Research Area

3.3     Population of the study

3.4     Sample and Sampling Technique

3.5     Research Instrument

 

3.6     Validation of Instrument

3.7     Administration of Instrument

3.8     Scoring of the Instrument

3.9     Method of Data Analysis

 

CHAPTER FOUR  

RESULT AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

4.1     Results

4.2     Discussion of Findings

 

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION

5.1     Summary

5.2     Recommendations

5.3     Conclusion

5.4     Suggestions for Further Studies

References

Appendix

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1     Background to the Study

The home is the child’s first place of contact with the world. The child as a result acquires initial education and socialization from present and other significant persons in the home. Moreover, the home is where every child is born into and makes first interactions. Undeniably, these interactions can contribute to the child permanently. However, the destiny of mankind depends on the child and the welfare of the child is closely linked to the home in terms of the innate tendencies drawn from the genetic transcription and the home environment (Ogulade, 2021).

Home variables in this context such as parent’s educational attained, socio-economic status of parents, level of social class placement are those factors that vary from one home to another.

 

HOME VARIABLES AND PUPILS ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN PRIMARY SCHOOLS

Other include; occupation of parents and home type such as broken home, single parenting etc. the psychological  home conditional arises mainly from illegitimacy of children, the label of adopted child, broken home, divorce and parental deviation and such abnormal effect may affect the academic performance of the  child. If children from homes with unstable and low socio-economic status background are compared with those from rich and stable background, it would be observed that those from rich and stable background perform academically better than those from poor and unstable background who may be experiencing social, emotional and psychological problems (Hanson (2013).

 

According to  Agus (2022), the environment in which the child finds his or herself can either make the child generation after generation geniuses die without being noticed as a result of their circumstances of birth. Indeed, parents are probably the actions with the dearest undimensional interest in a high level of their children’s academic performance. However, to some extent, there is simple evidence to show that mental instability which is one of the effects of home variables brings about stress, tension, lack of motivation and frustration among children of nursery schools age

Obviously, these manifestation acts in negatively on a child’s academic performance in school. In addition, children of unmarried parents, separated families, poor socio-economic status, low educational attainment amongst others, often fail and are at risk emotionally and academically.

 

However, this may not be completely applicable in all instances of poor home background or structure as children from this background may work hard through the influence of the school environment and become successful academically (Nsima, 2010).

Moreover, the environment which a child finds his or herself at the early stage of development influences the learning ability of the child and ultimately, this therefore from the background that this study was conducted to examine home variables and pupils academic performance in primary schools.

 

1.2     Statement of the Problem

Social Study is a subject taught children from nursery school to universities in Nigeria. Nursery education as contained in the National Policy on Education (NPE) is the education given in institutions for children aged 3-5years (FRN, 2013).

Since the result of the educational system is built upon the nursery education, it is the foundation and hence the key to success of failure of the child academically. However, social study is a subject which deals with the study of man and its nature in relationship with his environment. It is core subject in the primary school curriculum because its knowledge is indispensable to the educated man about his environment.

The aim of social studies teaching is to prepare the child to learn and understand the more specialized techniques provided later in life. Inspite of much emphasis laid on this subject, the study of social studies has not been encouraging in Nigeria as some pupils’ dropout on the way.

 

This is attributed this observation to factors related to parents, such as poverty, early marriage, persistent academic under achievement, home responsibilities and sickness in the home, similarly in nursery schools in Abak Local Government Area, pupils have been performing so poorly, academically in most of their school subject like social studies. Thus, this poor performance among pupils has caused serious concern among teachers, parents, educational planner and the society at large.

In fact, the poor academic performance could be attributed to the fact that pupils are from different home background. Therefore, it was based on this background that it became necessary to examine home variables and pupils academic performance in primary schools.

 

1.3     Purpose of the Study 

The main purpose of this study was to investigate home variables and pupils academic performance in primary schools. Specifically, the study intends to;

  • Examine parental educational attainment on pupils academic performance in social studies in primary schools.
  • Investigate the influence of parent income level on the pupils academic performance in social studies in primary schools.

 

1.4     Research Questions

The following research questions were formulated to guide the study;

  • To what extent does parental educational attainment influence pupils’ academic performance in social studies in primary school?
  • To what extent does the influence of parent income level influence pupils’ academic performance in social studies in primary school?

 

1.5     Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:

  • There is no significant difference in academic performance in social studies pupils whose parents are formally educated and those whose parents are not formally educated.
  • There is no significant difference in academic performance in social studies pupils whose parent income is high and these whose parent income is not high.

  

1.6     Significance of the study

The finding of this study may be significant in the following ways:

  • Firstly, it will be significant benefits to primary school teachers in a sense that they will modify their teaching strategies to suit all categories of pupils irrespective of their home background.
  • Secondly, the finding of the study will help parent in understanding their background as it affect their children academic performance in schools.

 

  • It will also help educational planners and curriculum planners to design a curriculum that will make learning of social studies and other school subject interesting to pupils irrespective of their home background.
  • The study will provide useful information for guidance counselors for effective counseling of both parents and pupils as it highlight the effect of home variables on pupils’ academic performance in social studies.
  • The finding of this study will also provide bases for further studies on home variables and academic performance of pupils in primary schools.

 

Definition of Terms 

Home: This is the first place when a child enters the world. It includes father, mother and children.

Home Variables: These are that difference that is common between families such as parental educational attainment and parents’ socio-economic status as used in this study.

Parental Educational Attainment: In brief, this is the level of education of father and mother.

Socio-Economic Status: This is the level of income of the parents which makes them to be placed in a social class in the society.

Academic Performance: In brief, this is the grade or scores of pupils in an experimentation or test in social studies.

 

Conclusion

Based on the findings of the study, it was concluded there is a significant difference in academic performance in social studies pupils whose parents are formally educated and those who parent are not formally educated. Also, that there is a significant difference in academic performance in social studies pupils whose parent income is high and those whose parent income is not high in primary schools. This therefore means that home variables (parents’ educational level and parents’ income) influence the academic performance of pupils in primary schools.

 

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