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1.1    Background to the Study

1.2    Statement of the Problem

1.3    Purpose of the Study

1.4    Significance of the Study

1.5    Research Questions


1.6    Research Hypothesis

1.7    Basic Assumptions of the Study

1.8    Delimitations of the Study

1.9    Limitations of the Study

1.10  Definition of Terms




3.1    Research Area

3.2    Research Design

3.3    Population of the Study

3.4    Sample and Sampling Technique


3.5    Source of Data Collection

3.6    Sample Procedure

3.7    Instrumentation

3.8    Validation of the Instrument

3.9    Data Collection Procedure

3.10  Method of Data Analysis



4.1     Presentation and Analysis of Data

4.2     Discussion of the Findings


5.1     Summary

5.2     Conclusion

5.3     Recommendations





This study investigated the relationship between home variables and pupils’ academic achievement in primary school Mathematics in Abak Local Government Area. The study was conducted in Abak Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. Two (2) research questions were raised and two (2) research hypotheses were formulated. A survey research design was adopted. The population of the study comprised 8000 primary six pupils from the area. Simple random sampling technique was employed to select the sample size of the three hundred (300) pupils (responded) from the 10 selected primary school.

The instrument used for data collection was structure questionnaire. The data collected were analyzed using mean and independent t-test. The hypotheses were tested at 0.05 level of significance. The result of the investigation revealed that, pupils from high income parents performed significantly better than those from low income parents. Pupils from educated parents performed better than those pupils who parents are uneducated.

Therefore, it is recommended among other things that, parent should create a conducive family for the child to accelerate both in character, norms and discipline which will in turn boast the child moral development. Parent should endeavour to acquire a little educational qualification before embarking on child bearing.




1.1 Background to the Study

The family is a social unit in any society and it is the source of easily stimulation and experience in children. The home influences the child at most possible time of his life at a time when his mind is most receptive. It provides the impression which may last through the whole of the child’s life.

Moreover, the child often sees the parents, siblings and things in their immediate environment to be most significant and they are capable of promoting or diminishing him in self worth and academic performance.


However, the background is the condition and immediate surroundings in which the pupils find themselves.  This also refers to as the physical and psychological condition that affects children Dungaiye (2020).

Consequently, the parents or guidance of these pupils are responsible for providing the right home environment that will facilitate effective learning for their ward.

Furthermore; in pupils home background some factors that influence their academic, parental educational background (I.e. educated and illiterate parents) parental socio-economic (i.e. high income and low income parents) parental family structure.

According to Adanit (2016) pupils from average/high income home background that have some educative media in their homes such as, computer, television set, radio tape recorder will be at an advantage in their performance because these media will help them to good speeches in English Language, watch educative programmes on television such as junior debate cartoons, tale by moonlight all these exposure will certainly reflect on the pupils academic performance at school.



In assessing the parental marital status in pupil’s academic performance, much attention is in sound human relations as the home background that is lenses due to divorce or unhealthy atmosphere of quarrelling; fighting due to polygamy cannot favors learning in the home as the mind of the pupils will not be settle in order to give room for creativity Ekanem (2014) states that harmonious home create emotional stability in the child at home and subsequently throughout his school life and thereby pupils academic performance in primary school mathematics.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Nigeria is a country with many ethnic groups such that is bound of provides people of different outlook both in political, economic, social, moral and academic circle. When these people come together in schools, there is tenderly to display a variety of behavior in terms of academic performance.

As a result of this situation, teachers only are often blamed. Most parents think that education is only what goes on in school and that a pupil’s academic performance depends entirely at what is happening in me society. It will be seen that some pupils from different families and schools perform better academically than others under the same society.


The influence of home variables that the economic status of parents in the academic achievement of their children have been posing very serious problem to many people in our society.

It is argued in some quarter that children from rich patent perform better academically than those children from poor parental background in the class-room situation. It is against this foreground that this study seeks to investigate the influence of home variables and pupil’s academic achievements in primary school mathematics in Abak Local Government Area.


1.3 Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study will be to investigate on Home variables and pupils academic achievement in primary school mathematics in Abak Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State.

Specifically, the study seeks to:

  1. Determine the difference in academic achievement of pupils from high income parents and those from low income parents (i.e. Economic status of parent).
  2. Find out whether there is difference in academic achievement of pupils whose parents are educated and those whose parents are uneducated (i.e. educational status of parent).


1.4 Research Questions

To guide the study, the following research questions were formulate to guide:-

  1. To what extent does parent’s Economic status (i.e. high income parent and low income parents) influence pupils academic achievement in primary school mathematics in Agak Local Government Area.
  2. To what extent does parental educational status (i.e. uneducated parents) influence pupils’ academic achievement in primary school mathematics in Abak Local Government Area?
  3. To what extent does family structure of parent (i.e. extended and nuclear family) influence pupils’ academic. Achievement in primary school mathematics in Abak Local Government Area.


1.5 Research Hypotheses

For the purpose of this study to be realized the following null hypotheses will be formulated to guide the study.

  1. There is no significant difference in academic achievement between pupils from high income parents and pupils from low income parent in primary school mathematics.
  2. There is no significant difference in academic achievement of between pupils from educated parents and those from illiterate parents in primary school mathematics.


1.6 Significant of the Study

This research work intends to be of great benefit to many people who will  come across it with reference to parents, counselors, teachers, students (pupils) educational planners, lecture and the nation at large.

The study will make parent to be aware of the influence of their home background in their children negatively or positively in relation to academic achievement. The study also suggest to parents and guardians and people alike to make use of the home to their children or ward comfortable in school or at lease encourage them to bear with their sponsors in ability to provide them with all the necessary school materials.

To the educational planters the study will enlighten them on the importance of planning the school curriculum with flexibility to suit different cultural environments and the importance of providing quality teachers and adequate classroom factors.

Teachers and lecturers can gain a lot from this research. It will inflect into the teaching profession a good understanding of  why the pupils perform the way they do academically and otherwise and this will enable the teachers adopt a variety of teaching technique and manage this class factors properly as to allow the different type of pupils benefit from the study.

In addition, to the counselors, it will yield a good bases for pupils (students) counseling on educational placement and vocational choice.

Lastly, to the nation, adherence to the recommendations of the study will bread a set of qualified and socially natural youths.


1.7 Limitation of the Study

In the process of conducting this research, the researcher faces some challenges that could threaten the success of this research work. Prominently among these challenges were adequate time frames to cover a larger scope as the topic suggested and submit the report of the work. Also insufficient finances to process and purchase the require materials for the study was hinder.


1.8 Delimitation of the Study

This study was design specifically to investigate the Home variable and pupil’s academic achievement in primary school mathematics in Abak Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State Nigeria.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Home Variables:- These are home factors which in one way or the other affect one life either negatively or positively. In this study, it includes economic status of parent, parental educational status.

Academic Achievement: – refers to the level of pupil’s success in school or it is the ability of the pupils or students to attain success in studies.



Based on the result of the study, it is concluded that pupils academic achievement is dependent on the two variables of parent economic status (high and low income parent) and the parent educational background that is (educated and uneducated parent) play a significant role in the child academic achievement in school respectively.

Therefore, the study has given enough insight into the problem faced by most primary school pupils in their academic pursuits. If these problem is remedial, could provide the background of the better academic achievement to the pupils and education in all primary schools in Abak Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria.

Joselyn Nya

My Name is Joselyn Nya A Publisher in Project Boss Team. I'm a Nigerian I'm a graduate/Educational Researcher. Project Boss Team. We are the best for Project materials and project writing services. Email:

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