DISCOUNT Sales!!! Get complete material at 45 percent Discount TODAY - Pay 1350 instead of ₦3000. Call/WhatsApp 07068634102



Title Page





Table of Contents


1.1     Background to the study

1.2     Statement of the Problem

1.3     Purpose of the Study

1.4     Research Questions


1.5     Research Hypotheses

1.6     Significance of the study

1.7     Delimitation of the Study

1.8     Limitation of the Study

1.9     Definition of Terms




3.1     Research Design

3.2     Area for the study

3.3    Population for the study

3.4     Sampling and Sampling Technique

3.5     Instrumentation


3.6     Instrument Validation

3.7     Administration of Instrument

3.8     Scoring of the Instrument

3.9     Method of Data Analysis



4.1     Data Presentation and Analysis

4.2     Discussion of Result



5.1     Summary

5.2     Conclusion

5.3     Recommendations

5.4     Suggestions for further study






1.1     Background to the Study

Without reservation, it is fair to state that reading is complex yet central to any English language program. It is a skill that involves learners entirely in the learning process as it depends on prior knowledge and connects it with the reading tasks at hand.

Observably, in many contexts, including the present study, learners spend more than enough time when they sit for a reading exam and demand more time and clarification. They also stay in the exam hall until the end of the exam and request extra time to finish the reading section.


Moreover, reading difficulties have been associated with limited academic success and related social-emotional outcomes including anxiety and low motivation (Main, Hill, Paolino, 2023).

However, a vast body of knowledge exits in this world which if explored and utilized, could up lift human status and make life better in the world. Without a doubt, this knowledge could be explored by listening to the world, observing the world, imagining about the world is  the best way through which we acquire a large body of knowledge that we require as human beings to lead a useful life on  earth  (Al-Ahdal, 2020 and Alenezi, 2021).



The idea behind the act of reading was developed out of a desire to translate written or printed symbols into human speech for meaning to be derived. Writing comes out as one of the skills of learning which has supplemented oral communication and so help to overcome the limitation of oral communication.

This is because what is spoken is only temporary and is susceptible to bring lost or being passed into human sub-consciousness oral communication could be misheard and any misheard information could result in usual consequences. Therefore, writing comes to supplement speech by acting as a lasting reservoir for knowledge which could be revealed only through reading (Al-Kadi & Hamdi, 2022).


Above all spoken communication is flexible permitting all sorts of deviation from the norms. To overcome these limitations writing (and later printing) were developed and to reap the fruits of writing or printing, the art of reading was discovered. Therefore, human beings discover the mysteries behind the written or printed symbols through reading (Main, Hill, Paolino, 2023). Reading is a concept being a concept it is one of the numerous study skills open to a learner who wants to extend his guest for knowledge beyond listening and observing his environment.

Reading is therefore any system through which human being sort and receive information from written or printed symbols as representative of human language with reading, we translate a writing or printing into human language. so that we obtain meaning from it with reading also, we keep a mental contact with people, place, events, and ideas that are beyond our immediate reach.


In addition, contributing to the definition of reading Alo (2017) sees reading as an essential tool for the acquisition of all kinds of human knowledge and as a means where by information stored in books can be obtained and utilized for a variety of purposes. This definition explains reading as a key which opens all knowledge that have been printed or written down. The hindrances to effective reading among Secondary School students.

The development of the ability to read in the second language is one of the most important responsibilities of the language teacher.  Reading competence is important because it under his success in all areas of learning and most importantly because it is essential to personal enrichment and the development of intelligent citizenship (Mason, & Otero, 2021).

Good reading abilities are as a result of many factors, in other words, there are some factors in the individual that reveals whether or not he is ready to read and comprehend materials (Main, Backhouse, Jackson, & Hill, 2020). Point out that good reading calls physical and mental health, sound vision and hearing a wide experience background adequate language development, a strong interest in and a purpose for the reading familiarity with printed symbols, and skill in dealing with various types of printed matter, we say the learner is ready to read. It is pertinent to note that it is the whole child when reads and not just his eyes or part of the body.


Considering existing data on the reading performance of students in secondary schools and indications of additional declines in reading due to the current global situation, secondary schools may be facing increased numbers of students whose reading is not at age-appropriate levels. Thus, in schools where student disadvantage is higher, this is likely to be even greater (Main, Hill, Paolino, 2023). Therefore, this study aimed to examine the hindrances to effective reading among Secondary School students


1.2     Statement of the Problem

Indeed, reading comprehension is never flawless and it has been the theme of some prior inquiries. To elaborate, it has been observed that students face difficulties in reading comprehension due to various factors from the teachers’ side such as focusing on reading aloud and neglecting reading comprehension. From the curricula’s side such as insufficient emphasis on reading comprehension, and on the students’ side such as lack of motivation and finally from parents’ side such as lack of supporting. These factors showed that the problem has roots at the school level.

Also, it has been observed that insufficient vocabulary and lack of grammar knowledge, in addition to issues related to spelling, pronunciation and slow reading are the main factors for students’ weakness in reading comprehension.


In addition, other factors observed, affecting reading comprehension are lack of support from the parents, teachers and society, the students found reading textbooks uninteresting, the classroom environment, and most students have little interest in reading in English. Taken together, reading difficulties in the above-mentioned contexts are identical. To approach the phenomenon thematically, various studies considered the impact of psychology on positive reading comprehension.


Most often times the teacher sets out objectives to ensure that the students acquire the requisite skills and interest in reading but the end result might not be always encouraging. There is need to emphasize that no matter how hard the student has to read. Absolutely, it is nowhere possible to remember everything that read. However the student most develop good reading habits as this is crucial to the present and future academic success of the student. The hindrances to effective reading among Secondary School students.

The poor reading attitude of students is worrisome to the teacher, parents and guardians as these set of people are very much concern about the education of their words). This is why this research  work intends to examine the reasons behind the poor reading culture with particular references to the impact of the physical state of the reader, adjustment of reading speed, physical environment, author’s subject matter mental and psychological state of the reader on effective reading in Essien Udim Local Government Area.


1.3     Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to examine the hindrances to effective reading among Secondary School students. The study will specifically.

i         Examine the impact of the physical state of the reader on effective reading

ii          Examine the influence of students ability to adjust to reading peed.

iii       Assess the influence of the physical environment on the reader.

iv       Examine the influence of the author’s subject matter on the reader.

v        Find out the influence of the mental and psychological state of the reader on effective reading in the study Area.


1.4     Significance of the Study

The study is significant because:

1       Firstly, this study will serve as a research manual for future researchers on similar topics.

2        It will serve as a guide to teachers especially on areas concerning testing of students on the importance of reading.

  1. It will also educate student on the importance of reading culture.

4        It will further help government and relevant agencies, especially on issues concerning teachers training on the issue.


1.5     Research Question

In the course of conducting this research the following questions were answered.

i         How does physical state of the reader affect effective reading?

ii        To what extent does adjustment or reading speed affect effective reading?

iii       How does the physical environment of the readers affect effective reading?

iv       How does the author’s subject matter affect reading?


1.6     Research Hypothesis

The following hypothesis are proposed to guide the study as follow:

i         There is no significant affect of the physical state of the reader on effective

ii       There is no significant effect of adjustment of reading speed on effective reading.

iii       There is no significant impact of the physical environment on effective reading.

iv       There is no significant relationship between author’s subject matter and effective reading.


Operation Definition of Teams     

1        Reading: This is any system through which human beings sort and receive information from written or printed symbols as representatives of human language.

2        Communication: This is the process of sending out a message and receiving responses in return.


DISCLAIMER: THIS WEBSITE CONTAINS A PROJECT GUIDE aimed to guide project students in writing their original project. Therefore, all information, including but not limited to, text, graphics, images and other material contained on this website are for educational and informational purposes for students, researchers and readers only. To get more useful contents on educational project or instant download of complete project material on any topic or project writing services. Reach out to us with +2347068634102

Joselyn Nya

My Name is Joselyn Nya A Publisher in Project Boss Team. I'm a Nigerian I'm a graduate/Educational Researcher. Project Boss Team. We are the best for Project materials and project writing services. Email:

Related Articles

Back to top button
Open chat
Scan the code
Hello 👋
Welcome to projectboss 24/7customer services.