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This project titled “HEALTH IMPLICATION OF ROASTING MEAT WITH AUTOMOBILE TYRES in Uyo Metropolis. Akwa Ibom State” is an authentic work carried out by me has been read, recommended and approved in its present form as meeting the requirement of the West Africa Health Examinations Board (WAHEB) for the award of Higher National Diploma (HND) in Environmental Health.





1.1    Introduction

1.2    Statement of the Problem

1.3    Significant of the Study

1.4    Broad Objective

1.5    Specific Objectives

1.6    Research Questions

1.7    Justification of the Study

1.8    Scope of the Study

1.9    Definition of Terms



2.1    Introduction

2.2.   Conceptual Framework

2.3    Empirical Framework

2.4    Theoretical Framework

2.5    Summary of Literature Review



3.1    Introduction

3.2    Study Design

3.3    Study Setting

3.4    Study Population

3.5    Sampling Size and Sampling Technique

3.6    Instrument Design

3.7    Validity and Reliability of the instrument

3.8    Method of Data Collection

3.9    Method Data Analysis

3.10  Limitations of the Study



4.1    Introduction

4.2    Presentation of Data

4.3     Analysis of Research Questions



5.1    Introduction

5.2    Discussion of Findings

5.3    Implication of the Study

5.4    Conclusion

5.5    Recommendations






1.1   Introduction

Goat, cow, sheep, pig, dog, chicken, meat etc are is commonly and mostly consumed meat all over the world by the people because of its high protein and iron level (Michael, 2017). However, in Nigeria and in several other African countries, roasting in an open fire is the major process by which hair on the skin of slaughtered goats is removed (Alo and Olanipekun, 2016). This is because roasting maintains the carcass hide for consumption. Also, evokes flavours in the meat which are acceptable to the consumer.


US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (2012) revealed that “tyre derived fuel” (TDF) contained several heavy metals such as lead (Pd), zinc (Zn), and Copper (Cu) that could be carcinogenic when exposed to consumers over a long period.


Research also revealed high levels of heavy metal residues in goat and cattle hides roasted with scrap tyres, which made them unsafe for consumption (Antwi-Agyei and Obiri-Danso, 2012).

According to Braide and Dibofori-orji (2011), traditionally, roasting proceeds in open fire using firewood as fuel. But the relative scarcity of firewood lately has resulted in local butchers using scrap tyres as alternative source of fuel to roast slaughtered livestock.

Duruibe, Ogwuegbu and Egwurugwu (2014) posited that, many local butchers in Nigeria have been using scrap tyres as substitute for firewood to roast slaughtered ruminants.


However, there is the possibility of a catastrophic fire occurring because of the large quantities of petroleum and other chemicals in tyres. A burning tyre creates thick, black, toxic smoke as well as large discharges of environmental pollutants (Essumang, 2012).

In view of the fact that tyres contain many potentially harmful substances, singed treatment with scrap tyres imposes enormous risk of deposition of toxic elements and compounds into the animal hide, which could significantly compromise meat quality (Kurt, 2013).


Furthermore, tyre being non-biodegradable combustible material. Thus, when burnt under open and uncontrolled fire conditions as low temperatures produces black plumes of smoke. As well as toxic volatilization products such as soot.  Therefore, which become incorporated into the ambient environment and causes air and water pollution as well as result in human and environmental hazard (FAO, 2015).


In addition, dioxin does not breakdown; it accumulates in the fatty tissues of animals and humans that consume the contaminated vegetation, meats, chickens and dairy products. Moreover, in humans, these Dioxins can lead to productive impairments, development of injuries and an increase in the risk of diabetes (Leita and Enne, 2011).


According to Essumang (2012), the risk of heavy metal contamination in meat therefore is of great concern for both food safety and human health because of the toxic nature of these metals at relatively minute concentrations. In this case, continuous consumption of such potentially contaminated meat product poses a great source of health risk.

The environmental pollution caused by the burning of tyres is a matter of great concern worldwide. Consequently, contamination of the food chain is getting increasingly important in view of its role in human health and nutrition. As such, there is need to curb this menace (Mohammad and Seyyed, 2012).



1.2   Statement of the Problem

Indeed, the growing population and incomes, along with changing food preferences are increasing the demand for livestock products (FAO, 2015). However, roasting practices predominantly used in the processing of slaughtered livestock include, the use of fire fueled by scrap tyres, firewood or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) to remove animal fur.

In Nigeria, despite the efforts of the Food and Drugs Agency which provides guidelines for the regulation of livestock products and also the presence of bye-laws in all Metropolis. To govern the production of meat in their respective slaughter houses, unhealthy practices such as animal roasting with vehicle scrap tyres, is still being exploited as a meat processing technique.

Therefore, the researcher is motivated to conduct a study on the health implication of roasting meat with automobile tyres in Uyo Metropolis.


1.3   Significant of the Study

Firstly, the findings of this work will serve as a baseline data for health planners in Government of Akwa Ibom State and Uyo Local Government in their collaborative efforts on meat hygiene and safety. It will also expose the impact of roasted meat with automobile tyres on health.

In academics, this work will serve as reference material to professionals and other researchers who may venture into this area of study.


1.4   Broad Objective

The broad objective of this study is to examine the health implication of roasted meat with automobile tyres in Uyo Metropolis.


1.5   Specific Objectives

Specifically, the study aims at achieving the following objectives:

  • To identify reasons for preference of automobile tyre for roasting meat.
  • To examine the different types of methods used in roasting meat.
  • To determine the effects of using automobile tyre for roasting meat on health.
  • To identify measures for adoption in processing meat for consumption.


1.6   Research Questions

  • What are the reasons for preferring automobile tyre for roasting meat?
  • What are the different types of methods used in processing meat?
  • What are the effects of roasting meat with automobile tyre on health?
  • Which measures/methods could be adopted in processing meat for consumption?


1.7   Justification of the Study

Roasting with scrap tyres poses a health challenge as well as an environmental hazard. This deserves not only the attention of the Metropolitan Assembly and the Environmental protection institutions. But also concerns of Health institutions and individuals to find a lasting solution to the problem.

The present study, therefore intended to investigate the health implications of roasted meat with automobile tyres. The results of the present study would therefore contribute to the understanding of the danger to health posed by the use of vehicle scrap tyres for roasting.


1.8   Definition of Terms

Health: Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing of an individual and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity.

Implication: Is the conclusion that can be drawn from something although it is not explicitly stated. Thus, a possible future effect or result.


Automobile Tyre: A tyre is a ring-shaped component that surrounds a wheel’s rim to transfer a vehicle’s load from the axle through the wheel to the ground and to provide traction on the surface traveled over.

Roasting: Roasting is a cooking method that uses dry heat where hot air envelops the food, cooking it evenly on all sides with temperatures of at least 150 °C (~300 °F) from an open flame, oven, or other heat source.

Meat: This is the flesh of an animal that is considered edible, especially that of a mammal or bird.



What is the effect of roasting meat with TYRE?

Impact of roasting goats with tyre on human health.

What is the roasting method of cooking meat?

What is the history of roasting food?



Based on the research findings made in the study, the following conclusion was drawn that the people prefer to use automobile tyre to roast meat. because it is cheaper and easily accessible although they agree that firewood is till the best material one can use to roast meat.

They are aware that the tyre, after burning, emits particulate matter (black carbon) which pollutes the environments even though they may not know the names of the chemicals it contains. Majority of the populace agree that the practice has some inherent health implications.


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Joselyn Nya

My Name is Joselyn Nya A Publisher in Project Boss Team. I'm a Nigerian I'm a graduate/Educational Researcher. Project Boss Team. We are the best for Project materials and project writing services. Email:

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