Research Proposals



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Title Page





Table of Contents


1.0     Background to the Study

1.2     Statement of the problem

1.3     Purpose of the Study

1.4     Significance of the study


1.5     Research Questions

1.6     Research Hypotheses

1.7     Limitation of the study

1.8     Delimitation of the study

1.9     Definition of Terms




3.1     Research Design

3.2     Area of the study

3.3     Population of the study

3.4     Sample and Sampling Techniques


3.5     Instrumentation

3.6     Validity of the Instrument

3.7     Reliability of the Instrument

3.8     Administration of the instrument

3.9     Method of Data Analysis




4.1     Data Analysis

4.2     Discussion of Findings




5.1     Summary

5.2     Recommendations

5.3     Conclusion

5.4     Suggestion for further Research






1.1   Background to the Study

Secondary school education is the knowledge acquisition, a stage at which student’s come in contact with various subjects, which determines the field of study they will like to pursue in higher schools. Secondary school education is a kind of level after the primary education and before higher education. Its position in educational system also speaks of its importance.

Schwarzeller (2016) see school as that which provides an outside view of what needs to happen in order for change to occur and also an equal opportunity for developing capacities and talents.



Without a doubt, education reforms Nigeria always have the secondary schools as main focus (Ezekwesili, 2023). In fact, Kutara (2017) opines that individual differences exist among people and this has an effect on who the individuals are and what they are capable of doing. Undeniably, what an individual does is sometimes in variance with his ability, aptitude capability and interest.


Individual differences in the rate of growth, intellect, school achievement and sex usually set the pace where students look at themselves in career orientation. But such factors as home, the school and the community form very vital factors in the student’s environment and usually influence their career choices or aspiration.

In addition, other factors like parental expectation, big salary, societal prestige, personal security, good rapport with friends, changes for advancement as well the nature of the work itself have directly or indirectly lured most students  who are about to leave school into making unrealistic career choices.

Career as used in the field of counseling has a broad and technical meaning. Technically, it refers to sequence of role or a position including works, leisure and educational pursuit that may encompass a number of occupations, vocation or jobs on engages in during his working life (Seligman, 2020).


According to the International Encyclopedia Britannica (1978) career is a job for which it is possible to advance during working life so that a person may get greater responsibility and earn more money.

Career can so be said to be the total life long experience of work that has come to serve as his means of earning a livelihood (Kolo, 2019). The choice of career previously was not as difficult as it is today. There were fewer job opportunities and more importantly, parents, teachers and religious bodies were aware of the existing opportunities as well as requirements for entry into them.


However, the situation has changed for the fact that secondary school students hardly have full knowledge of the requirement for each job and can no longer keep track with the numerous career opportunities. Indeed, guidance and counselling is a helping profession which is concerned with molding, reconstructing and rehabilitating a trouble person. It is a self revealing relationship and both preventive and curative of maladaptive behaviour. It is globally accepted that, guidance and counselling activities are for human beings, those with or without problems, normal and abnormal (Eliamari, Richard & Peter, 2022).

The establishment of modern guidance and counselling in secondary schools in Nigeria however, rests on the realization of the need for more sophisticated and integrated package to help individual’s satisfy their problems and concerns of presents day living.

Okon (1994) defined guidance as total programme for highly specialized activities, implemented by a specialist, to help individuals make wise and intelligent choices and decisions.

Counseling, on the other hand, has been defined by Makinde (2017) as a service designed o help an individual analyze himself by capabilities, achievements, interest mode of adjustment towards what new decision he has made or has to made.


Therefore, since guidance and counseling is a profession for effective counseling to take place, it must involve the application of basic principles for effective helping. These however, include the principles of understanding sequential process; appreciate self-disclosure and observance of ethnics. Their applications not only make counseling effective but also add to the specialist of the counseling relationship. Therefore, based on this background, this study examined guidance and counselling services and students’ career choice in secondary schools.


1.2   Statement of the problem    

Most schools in Nigeria run programmes that are deficient in diversification to cater for all career choice of students. In these schools, most of the students are left unguided because their schools have no guidance and counseling services. Students therefore are prone to making unwise career choices or no choice at all because there is no counselor to guide them, until after schooling. Wrong choice of students and courses may result due to lack of sufficient information.

Apart from this problem, there is a conflict between the students freedom of occupations and not only that of the nation’s manpower needs, but also the conflict between the students’ choices, the parents choices and friends advises.

The fact that secondary school students cannot make realistic career plans is a serious problem and this research work will equally look at the problem associated with guidance and counseling, career choice and aspirations of these levels of students counseling the fact that guidance and counseling have implications on their choices and aspirations which career choice has serious consequences on their future and by extension the society at large. Therefore, this study examined guidance and counselling services and students’ career choice in secondary schools.


1.3    Purpose of the Study

The broad purpose of this is to investigate guidance and counselling services and students’ career choice in secondary schools. Specifically, the objectives include:

  • To justify the effectiveness or other wise of counseling services in secondary schools.
  • To find out the roles of guidance and counseling to the students career choice in secondary schools in the study area.
  • To identify the career choice of the students in secondary schools of the study area.
  • To investigate the effects of career choice on the future of the secondary schools students in the area under review.
  • To explore the factors influencing the career choice of secondary school students.


1.4    Significance of the study  

The findings obtained in this study will be beneficial to students who would be properly counseled on their choices of subjects before going to the university. Parents also will be educated on the importance of giving heir children free hand top choose careers that they have interests and abilities. Guidance and counselling services and students’ career choice in secondary schools.

To the teachers, the study will help the teachers by showing them the proper way of counseling their students on choicer of subjects in order to suit with the individual capabilities. Finally, guidance counselors will use this study in counseling their clients on complicated issues and the ways forwards for easy intervention and assistance.


1.5    Research Questions

This research is an attempt to answer the following questions:

  • Is there any significant difference in career choice of students in schools with the availability of guidance and counseling services?
  • Is there any significant difference in career choice students in schools with parental influences?
  • Is there any significant difference in career choice of students in schools based on guidance counselling?


1.6    Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were formulated by the researcher to guide the study:

  • There is no significant difference in career choice of students in secondary schools with the availability of guidance and counseling services and in school without.
  • There is no significant difference in career choice students in secondary schools with parental influences and those without.
  • There is no significant difference in career choice of students in secondary schools based on guidance counselling and those without.


Definition of Terms

Guidance: In brief, this refers to the process of helping individuals to understand themselves and their world.

Counselling: This is a helping relationship between clients who is helpless and a counselor who is knowledgeable in helping people become aware of themselves.

Career Guidance: In brief, this is a process of assisting an individual to choose a job or work that he/she will earn a living throughout his life time.

Career Choice: This simply refers to the process a child will be guided to decide an area during and after his/her secondary school levels.

School Counselling Services: These are social services rendered by trained people who include counselling placement, follow-up selection, planning and evaluation.


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Ikemesit Akpan is my name. I am a Nigerian author. I work with I'm a researcher and a writer of academic research.

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