GENDER DIFFERENCES AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF STUDENTS

GENDER DIFFERENCES AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF STUDENTS
GENDER DIFFERENCES AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF STUDENTS

GENDER DIFFERENCES AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF STUDENTS

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgements

Abstract

Table of Contents

 

CHAPTER ONE – INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background of the Study

1.2    Statement of the Problem

1.3    Purpose of the Study

1.4    Significance of the Study

 

1.5    Research Questions

1.6    Research Hypotheses

1.7    Limitation of the Study

1.8    Definition of Terms

 

CHAPTER TWO – REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

CHAPTER THREE – RESEARCH METHODS    

3.1    Research Design

3.2    Area of the Study

3.3    Population of the Study

3.4    Sample and Sampling Technique

 

3.5    Instrument for Data Collection

3.6    Validation of the Instrument

3.7    Administration of the Instrument

3.8    Scoring of the Instrument

3.9    Method of Data Analysis

 

CHAPTER FOUR – DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

4.1    Data Analysis

4.2    Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE – SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION

5.1    Summary

5.2    Recommendations

5.3    Conclusion

5.4    Suggestions for Further Study

References

Appendix

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

Gender is a natural status of male and female. It is one of the factors that influence students learning and achievement in many school subjects. Moreover, Kever (2020) defined it as a cultural constructs that distinguishes the roles behaviour, mental and emotional characteristics between male and female developed by the society.

Psychologically, Okoro (2022) described students’ gender in secondary schools to encompass male and female adolescents whom a prospective teacher would meet during classroom instruction. However, their chorological age spans in years is between twelve and twenty.

The author posits that from the time a student enters school until he leaves by his growth and experiences which becomes dominant factors in the choice of career as well as later performance and generate achievement in the chosen professions. However, gender differences have become one in the hot list among the critical issue around the world.

 

GENDER DIFFERENCES AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF STUDENTS

Hausmann, Tyson and Zahidi (2019) reported that there is no country in the world that has yet reached equality between men and women in different critical area such as economic participation and education. However, research on gender difference in academic achievement offers educators information on implications and guidance on specific directions to take.

In mathematics and science in particular, gender difference are well documented and reveal certain stereotypes perpetuated by society, school and families (Manning, 2023).

Gender differences can also manifest in students within the environment which each sex is exposed to. In the home, school, church and the larger society, each sex is treated, cared for, developed and brought up with the purpose of becoming like a self reliant and be capable of becoming like a self reliant and independent individual in the society. Thus, the kind of social, moral, emotional and intellectual sources are of great significance in shaping him or her personality and inculcating positive values towards academic achievement (Eneh and Nkang, 2021).

 

According to Anwana (2021), in advanced and civilized countries, the cultural roles expectation of boys and girls are known and clearly defined during childhood. Each sex is therefore trained along his or her identified career. Gender differences and academic achievement of students in secondary schools.

In the Nigeria society, boys and girls only undergo different socialization experiences and they tend to learn different gender roles and behaviour patterns and hence develop different interest that later become the dominant factors in the acquisition of cognitive and motor-skill in one’s profession.

 

In Economics, the performance of students may as well continue upon several factors, some of which are: hereditary, psychological, physical, social and other environmental variables.

These factors which equally contribute to the sex constitution of a particular individual can influence positive or negative on the academic achievement of the students in Economics. It was based on this premise that this research attempted to investigate gender differences and academic achievement of students in secondary schools.

 

1.2 Statement of the Problem

In brief, the persistent poor academic performance of students is the major problem of this research. Despite the fact that learners differ in terms of gender and other characteristics, teachers skill continue to threat them as if they were all alike and needed the same kinds of learning and other forms of common treatment.

Okoro (2022) noted that uniform treatment of learners at any level or in any subject area is erroneous because the same learning activities, teaching strategies and instructional content will not evoke the same achievements or responses from both sexes at any given time. Thus, this uniform treatment of students made many Economics students over the years to perform poorly in examinations.

Also, the performance seems to follow a gender pattern. Since an empirical study had not been readily available to establish the truth of the observation.

The researcher thus undertook this research to examine gender differences and academic achievement of students in secondary schools.

 

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of the study was to examine gender differences and academic achievement of students in secondary schools. Specifically, the objectives of the study are:

  1. To find out the academic achievement of male and female students in Economics.
  2. To find out the academic achievement of male students from rural and urban areas in Economics.
  3. To investigate out the academic achievement of female students from rural and urban areas in Economics.

 

1.4    Significance of the Study

The findings from this study will be of beneficial to a group of people including the students, teachers, school administrators, curriculum planners and prospective researchers in science and other subject areas.

Firstly, to the students, the finding is expected to sharpen their minds towards positive self concept of themselves, their personality, characteristics and better learning. Gender differences and academic achievement of students in secondary schools.

Secondly, the findings of this study will expose the teachers, school administrators and curriculum planners to those gender characteristics that should be married into classroom management to really cater for gender difference in the school system. Thus, this knowledge would male them plan school lessons and other school programmes to meet its specific needs for each sex groups.

Lastly, the outcome of this study will remain as a body of knowledge and literature to other researchers on related topics.

 

1.5 Research Questions

The following research questions were formulated to guide the researcher in the study:

  1. Is there any difference in academic achievement of male and female students in Economics?
  2. Is there any difference in academic achievement of male students from rural area and those from urban area in Economics?
  3. Is there any difference in academic achievement of female students from rural area and those from urban area in Economics?

 

1.6   Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were formulated for the study:

  1. There is no significant difference in academic achievement of male and female students in Economics.
  2. There is no significant difference in academic achievement of male students from rural area and those from urban area in Economics?
  3. There is no significant difference in academic achievement of female students from rural area and those from urban area in Economics?

 

Definition of Terms

Gender: This is the classification of the individual into either male or female.

Academic Achievement: In brief, this is measured as the capacity of a learner in terms examination scores or results in terms of the attainment in quantitative form of specified learning objectives in a given curriculum.

Students: As used in this study refers to as group of learners in both the secondary schools and at the higher institution of learning.

 

Conclusion

From the results and findings of this study the following conclusions can be drawn.

  1. Firstly, gender differences of students is one of the major factors that influence students’ academic achievement.
  2. Secondly, there is a significant difference between academic achievement of male and female students.
  3. Thirdly, there is a significant difference between academic achievement of male students from rural and urban area.
  4. Lastly, there is a significant difference between academic achievement of female students from rural and urban area.

 

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Ikemesit Akpan is my name. I am a Nigerian author. I work with projectboss.com.ng. I'm a researcher and a writer of academic research. ikemesitetukapan20233@gmail.com