Research Proposals

FAMILY VARIABLES AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN MATHEMATICS AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOLS PUPILS

FAMILY VARIABLES AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN MATHEMATICS AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOLS PUPILS

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TABLE OF CONTENTS  

Title Page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgments

Abstract

Table of Contents

 

CHAPTER ONE – INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background of the study

1.2    Statement of the Problem

1.3    Purpose of the study

1.4    Significance of the Study

1.5    Research Hypotheses

 

1.6    Delimitation of the study

1.7    Limitation of the study

1.8    Definition of Terms

 

CHAPTER TWO        –       REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

CHAPTER THREE     – RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1    Research Design

3.2    Research Area

3.3    Population of the Study

3.4    Sample and Sampling Technique

 

3.5    Research Instrument

3.6    Validation of Instrument

3.7    Administration of Instrument

3.9    Method of Data Analysis

 

CHAPTER FOUR – DATA ANALYSIS RESULT AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

4.1    Data Analysis/Results

4.2    Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE

SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION

5.1    Summary

5.2    Recommendations

5.3    Conclusion

5.4    Suggestions for Further Studies

References

Appendix

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background of the study

The family is the child’s first place of contract with the world. The child is a result acquires initial education and socialization from parent and other significant persons in the family. Agulana (2019) pointed out that the moral, psychological and spiritual foundation in the overall development of the child.

Ekpo (2020) was of the view that the home is where every child is born into and makes first interactions. These interactions can contribute in shaping the feelings, emotions and attitudes of the child permanently.

 

Family variables in this context such as parents educational attainment; socio-economic status of parents, level of social class placement are those factors that varies from one family to another. Other includes; occupation of parents and family type such as broken home, single parenting amongst others.

 

FAMILY VARIABLES AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE IN MATHEMATICS AMONG PRIMARY SCHOOLS PUPILS

Furthermore, according to Fraza (2021) the psychological home conditions arise mainly from illegitimacy of children, the label of adopted child, broken home, divorce and parental derivation. Indeed, such abnormal effect on academic performance of the child.

In addition, Scales and Roehkepartein (2023) are of the opinions that the family and its structure play a great role in children’s academic performance. Levin (2021) also states that parents are probably the actions with the clearest undimensional interest in a high level of their children’s academic performance.

Nevertheless, to some extent, there is simple evidence to show that mental instability which is one of the effects of family variables brings about stress, tension, lack of motivation and frustration among children of nursery school age. Obviously, these manifestation acts negatively on a child’s academic performance in school. Family variables and academic performance in mathematics among primary schools pupils.

Furthermore, Johnson (2023) posited that children of unmarried parents, separated families, poor socio-economic status, low educational attainment amongst others, often fail and are at risk emotionally and academically.

 

However, this may not be completely applicable in all instances of poor family variables background or structure as children from these backgrounds may work hard through the influence of the school environment and become successful academically.

Moreover, Ayodele (2016) stated that the environment which a child finds his /her learning ability and ultimately his/her academic performance in school. This therefore forms the background that this study was conducted to investigate family variables and academic performance in mathematics among primary schools pupils.

 

1.2   Statement of the Problem

Mathematics is a subject taught children from nursery school to universities in Nigeria. However, mathematics learning foundation is lay in the nursery school. Moreover, mathematics as a science of logical reasoning applied to the operation on numbers. It is a core subject in the school curriculum because its knowledge is indispensable to the educated man.

 

The aim of mathematics teaching is to prepare the child to learn and understand the more specialized techniques provided later in life. As it is regarded as a service subject to science, technology, commerce, geography, economics, politics and events arts.

Inpsite of much emphasis, the study of mathematics has not been encouraging in Nigeria as some pupils’ dropout on the way (Haggai, 2023). The attributed this observation to factors related to parents such as poverty, early marriage, persistent academic under achievement, family responsibilities and sickness in the family.

 

Similarly in nursery schools in Etinan Local Government Area, pupils have been performing so poor academically in most of their school subjects like mathematics. Thus, this poor performance among pupils has caused serious concern among teachers, parents, educational planner and the society at large.

On the foregoing, Wilson (2015) asserted that the poor academic performance could be attributed to the fact that pupils are from different family background. It was therefore necessary to examine family variables and academic performance in mathematics among primary schools pupils.

 

1.3   Purpose of the study

The main purpose of this study was to investigate family variables and academic performance in mathematics among primary schools pupils. Specifically, the study intends to;

  • Examine parental educational attainment on academic performance in mathematics among primary school pupils.
  • Investigate the influence of parent income level on the academic performance in mathematics among primary school pupils.

 

 1.4   Significance of the Study

The findings of this study may be significant in the following ways:

  • Firstly, it will be significant benefits to primary school teachers in a sense that they will modify their teachings strategies to suit all categories of pupils irrespective of their family background.
  • Secondly, the findings of the study will help parents in understanding their background as it affect their children academic performance in school. Family variables and academic performance in mathematics among primary schools pupils.

 

  • It will also help educational planners and curriculum planners to design a curriculum that will make learning of mathematics and other school subject interesting to pupils irrespective of their family background.
  • The study will provide useful information for guidance counselors for effective counseling of both parents and pupils as it highlight the effect of family variables on pupil’s academic performance in mathematics.
  • The findings of this study will also provide bases for further studies on family variables and academic performance of pupils in primary schools.

 

1.5   Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study:

  • There is no significant difference in academic performance in mathematics among primary school pupils whose parents are formally educated and those who parents are not formally educated.
  • There is no significant difference in academic performance in mathematics among primary school pupils whose parent income is high and those whose parent income is not high.

 

Definition of Terms   

The following terms were defined as used in the study:

Family: This is the first place when a child enters the world. Thus, it includes father, mother and children.

Family Variables: These are those differences that is common between families such as parental educational attainment and parents socio-economic status as used in this study.

Parental Educational Attainment: In brief, this is the level of education of father and mother.

Socio-Economic Status: This is the level of income of the parents which makes them to be placed in a social class in the society.

Academic Performance: In brief, this is the grade or scores of pupils in an examination or test in mathematics.

 

Conclusion

Based on the findings of the study, it was concluded that students from high educational parents perform better in Mathematics performance test used in the study than students from low or poorly educated parents  and also the higher the income level of parents, the higher the level of academic performance  of pupils. This therefore means that parents educational level and parents income influence the academic performance of pupils in primary schools.

 

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Ikemesit

Ikemesit Akpan is my name. I am a Nigerian author. I work with projectboss.com.ng. I'm a researcher and a writer of academic research. ikemesitetukapan20233@gmail.com

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