Research Proposals



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Title Page





Table of Contents



1.1     Background to the Study

1.2     Statement of the Problem

1.3     Purpose of the Study

1.4     Significance of the Study

1.5     Research Questions

1.6     Limitation of the Study

1.7     Definition of Terms




3.1     Area of the Study

3.2     Research Design

3.3     Population of the Study


3.4     Sample and sampling Technique

3.5     Instrument for data collection

3.6     Validation of the Instrument

3.7     Administration of the Instrument

3.8     Scoring of the Instrument

3.9     Method of Data Analysis



4.1     Results

4.2     Discussion of Findings



5.1     Summary

5.2     Conclusion

5.3     Recommendations

5.4     Suggestions for further study






1.1     Background to the Study

Over the years, many educational authorities have sought to find out the reasons for the downward trend in the academic achievement of secondary school students. Daramola (2023) attributed it to the students’ background that is, the family where the child is raised. Moreover, he stressed that the environmental condition and the nature of social interaction that goes on in the family may have some positive or negative influence on students self concepts in learning institutions.

Daramola (2023) further stated that the factors affecting a child’s self concepts include family types such as single parenthood family and as well as double parenthood family. This is because the valves transmitted by parents from these family types are different.

However, Wilkins (2016) noted that in double parenthood family, both parents show active interest in what their child is doing at school. They also encourage and build positive self concepts in their wards reading habits. This enables them to have obvious advantage over his peers from single parenthood and double parent family. He further noted that the child from a single parent family many have just few textbooks, while the child from a double family may have almost all the books recommended at school.



In double parent family also, it may be the mother’s responsibility to see that the children do their homework, provide them with materials needed for academic work to build positive self concepts in them. This is contrary to what happens in the single-parent family.


On the other hand, students’ self concept is an individual student’s attitude towards his/her physical self and own behaviour. In fact, the student self has a serious of conceptual levels that consists of the social selves, the conscious private self, the insightful and represses or depth self (Gurabasadappa, 2019).

Furthermore, Lawrence (2016) sees students self concept as an individual students awareness of his/her own identity. There are three aspects of this concepts: self image (of what the person is), ideal self (what the person wants to be/and self esteem (what the person feels about the discrepancy between what he/she is and what he/she would like to be).

Undeniably, self concept at school seems to be affected by the image that other significant persons (teachers, parents, peers) have of the students (Burns and Harter, 2016) and by social comparison with others in the same setting. Highly anxious students in secondary schools were found to have poorer study skills, to engage in a negative self deprecatory internal dialogue or worrisome thoughts about themselves and about test consequences.


Most of all these self concepts are as a result of the family type they found themselves. This is because family types, self concept, academic anxiety and scholastic competence of the students are close related factors. It was based on these facts that the research was conducted to find out family types and students self concepts in secondary schools.


1.2     Statement of the Problem

It is a known fact that student’s self concepts, growing confidence and development are largely influenced by the family life and family relationships. Also, students’ well-being in school as an institution of learning continues to depend on the quality of family interactions. But most parents do not give their wards positive interaction that will help them in building their self concepts. This explains why many students are not bold enough to contribute and participate during class activities.

Considering the powerful influences of the family on the child and its importance as a primary agent of socialization, there is no doubt that the students’ self concept can be enhanced or hindered depending on the social climate in the family. This is because of the different family types which the students find themselves. It was based on the above that this study was carried out to determine family types and students self concepts in secondary schools.


1.3     Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this present research study was to examine family types and students self concepts in secondary schools.

  1. To examine how double parenthood family affects students’ self concepts in secondary schools.
  2. To investigate how single-parent family affects students’ self concepts in secondary schools.


1.4     Significance of the Study

The study of family types and students’ self concepts in secondary schools is significant because of the following. It would help parents to develop their children with positive attitude which will help them to have positive self concept both in school and at home irrespective of family type. Also, the findings of this study would reveal to teachers and parents the effect of the social climate at home on students’ self concepts. It would also aids parents to provide conducive learning environment at home for students’ learning.

Finally, it would aid teachers to adequately act on “loco-parents” and as counselors to students while in school to boost in them positive students’ self concepts.


1.5     Research Questions

The following questions were asked to guide the researcher in the study:

  1. To what extent does double parenthood family affect students’ self concept in secondary schools?
  2. To what extent does single parent family affect students’ self concepts in secondary schools?


1.6     Limitation of the Study

Several problems were encountered while undertaking this research work. Some of these include:

  1. Firstly, the period given for the completion of this study was not enough for a wider and more in-depth study.
  2. Secondly, lack of funds to procure necessary materials for the study and high cost of transportation in getting to sample schools constitute some hindrances.
  3. Lack of enough pervious research materials in the subject was also an added constraint encountered during the course of this work.


1.7     Definition of Terms

Family: A family is a group of people who live together. They share the housework and take care of one another.

Family Type: As viewed in this study refers to the type of family which a student find his or herself such as double parenthood and single-parents families.

Single-Parent Family: In brief, this is a family where the mother or father in caring for the children in the family.

Double Parent Family: This is a family where the student is in the care of both the mother and father.

Self Concept: Is an individual’s attitude towards his/her physical self and own behaviour which may affects learning.



A consideration of student’s family type (background) is very important in teaching and learning. This is because this study has shown that the nature of social interactions within the family can influence the child’s self-concept both at home and in school.

A negative influence on a child’s emotions and psychology will consequently affect his or her performance in school. Findings of the study revealed that students must know self-concept and anxiety starting from their family as the first social environment where students begin to socialize for success in their future life. As such family type is one of the factors that affect students’ self-concepts in post –primary schools.

The following conclusions were drawn based on the specific objectives of the study:

  1. Double parenthood family affects students’ self-concept in secondary schools.
  2. Single parents family is another factor that affects students’ self-concept in secondary schools.


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Ikemesit Akpan is my name. I am a Nigerian author. I work with I'm a researcher and a writer of academic research.

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