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Title page






Table of Contents

List of Tables


1.1       Background of the Study

1.2       Statement of the Problem

1.3       Purpose of the Study

1.4       Research Questions


1.5       Significance of the Study

1.6       Scope of the Study

1.7       Definition of Terms


2.1       Conceptual Framework

2.2       Theoretical Framework

2.3       Factors Associated with Teenage Pregnancies among secondary school students

2.4       Empirical Studies on Teenage pregnancy



3.1       Research Design

3.2       Population for the Study

3.3       Sample and Sampling Technique

3.4       Validity of the Instrument

3.5       Method of Data Collection

3.6       Instrumentation

3.7       Data Analysis Technique



4.1       Research Hypothesis 1

4.2       Research Hypothesis 2

4.3       Research Hypotheses 3

4.4       Discussion of Findings



5.1       Summary

5.2       Conclusions

5.3       Recommendations

5.4       Recommendation for Further Study-






1.1       Background of the Study

The issue of pregnancies among teenage girls seems to be a major social problem facing not only Nigeria. But also several others Nations of the World. Surveys by Investigators such as Briggs (2023), Onuzulake (2013) and others revealed that teenagers become sexually active at an early age with corresponding high fertility. Teenage sexual activities in Nigeria also tend to be one the increase (Nwosu, 2015). A major consequence of these increase in premarital sexual activity among teenagers is out of wed-lock pregnancies that are bound to end in abortion, childbirth or even death.

Teenager is often used interchangeable with adolescence. World Health Organisation – WHO (2018) opined that, it is the period between 10 and 19 years when the secondary sex characteristics appear, Turner and Helms (2019) reported that the teen years fall between the ages of 13 and 19 years. Views and opinions vary among authors and researchers on the specific age at which it begin or ends.


Adesomowo (1988) reported that the teen years starts at either 11 or 12 years and last to 19 years when the character of a person takes the permanent form. According to Nwosu (2015), adolescents include all persons aged 13 to 19 years who constitute about 20 percent of the world population. Melgosa (2011), and a host of others agree that the teen years span from 13 to the 19 years of age.

Bongaart and Cohen (2018) described the teen years period of transition from childhood to adulthood, characterized by heightened social awareness and accelerated physical growth. This period, they opined, marks the onset of puberty and biological Maturity.



It is a crucial period in the life of an individual because social, economic and demographic events occurs that set the stage for adult life.

Ukekwe (2011) described it as the most important period in human life, which if not property handled, could lead to the most disastrous consequences in life especially among females.


Based on the opinion of researchers on the specific age at which teenage begins. The present study will be based on the age limit of 13 to 19 years. On the contrary some of these teenagers engage in pre-martial sexual activities which expose them to the risks of abortions, sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and pregnancies. The factors responsible for teenage pregnancy among secondary school students.

Pregnancy as defined by Gordon (2013) is a condition in which a female carries in her womb the young before it is born. Similarly, Skyes (2010) defined pregnancy as the condition of carrying a developing offering in the uterus. Teenage pregnancy therefore means girls expecting to give birth to children between the ages of 13 and 19. According to Allan Guttmacher Institute (AGI) (1988), teenage pregnancy is an undesirable phenomenon. Onuzulke (2013), supported this when observed that teenage pregnancy interferes with expectation regarding education, self-realization and economic prosperity among the affected teenagers.

Teenage pregnancy has vital implication for population growth. Nwosu (2015) opined that there is global increase in teenage pregnancies. She observed that more than 14 million adolescents give birth each year this contributing roughly 10 percent of the world’s total number of births. Ukekwe (2011), noted that many of these babies are unwanted by their teen mothers. These babies she maintained suffer from starvation, sicknesses, homelessness and abandonment among other complication.


Briggs (2023) identified several complication associated with teenage pregnancy. These include high blood pressure, pre-eclamsia, malnutrition, vesico vaginal fistula, recto vaginal fistula and death. He observed that when high blood pressure is accompanied by proteinuria, the teenager’s condition can worsen to eclampsia, which if not controlled could progress to extreme hypertension, seizures, convulsion and cerebral hemorrhage.

Chabra (2019) outlined complications of pregnancy among teenagers to include first and third trimester’s bleeding, severe anaemia, prolonged and obstructed labour, cephalopelvic disproportion, and toxaemias of pregnancy, still birth and high prenatal mortality and morbidity.

Nwosu (2015) observed that adolescents face many risk ranging from unwanted pregnancies, HIV and AIDS, others STIs. Also, sexual exploitation and inadequate information to help them negotiate this difficult passage to adulthood. Nwosu added that teens need access to specific information about to keep their bodies safe as well as information about sexual behavior and its consequences. She maintained that information about sexuality should be imparted to teenagers in order to help them avoid unwanted pregnancies.

These situation may therefore constitute a serious setback to the teenager involved.


1.2       Statement of the Problem

Research shows that the teen years are the most stressful and confusing times of life. During this period, teenagers are expected to acquire education and skills needed for the future. On the contrary, many teenage girls engage in premarital sex which expose them to the risks of STIs and teenage pregnancies.

Pregnancy is usually welcome when it occurs at the appropriate time such as a mature age and in wedlock. On the contrary, it is most unwanted when it occurs outside of wedlock or during the teen years, when the individual should be acquiring skills in formal or non-formal environments.


1.3       Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study was to determine the factors responsible for teenage pregnancy among secondary school students. Specifically, the study set out as follows:

  1. To examine how lack of sex education does significantly influence teenage pregnancy.
  2. To examine how early exposure to pornography significantly enhance teenage pregnancy.
  3. To examine how socio-economic status of parent significantly causes teenage pregnancy.


1.4       Research Questions

  1. Does effective lack of sex education bring about teenage pregnancy?
  2. Does early exposure to pornography enhance teenage pregnancy?
  3. Does socio-economic status of parent bring about teenage pregnancy?


1.5       Significance of the Study

  • Educational planners will use the information from the study to develop strategies. To ensure that skills acquisition centers be established in every Local Government Area. Thus, to help adolescents who cannot complete formal education to acquire skills that will make them independent.
  • The study will also aid the implementation authorities to provide efficient programmes aimed at educating teenagers on sex and sexuality education to be introduced into the curricula. More counselors should be employed in schools to take care of this aspect of the curricula. Because teenagers indicated ignorance of safe and unsafe period of sex as a factor in teenage pregnancy. The factors responsible for teenage pregnancy among secondary school students.


  • The outcomes of the finding will help religious leaders to tackle the problem of teenage unwanted pregnancies through moral institutions in churches.
  • Parents should be educated through seminars on the importance of discussing sex and sexuality with their children especially the females.
  • The findings would also serve as a reference material for other researchers on similar subject matter.


Definition of Terms

Pregnancy; Pregnancy is to state of carrying a developing embryo fetus within the female body.

Teenager: Is a person who falls within the ages of 13 to 19  years old.

Adolescence: Is a transitional stage of physical and psychological development that generally occurs during the period from puberty to legal Adulthood (age of Majority).

Abuse: Use something to bad effect or for a bad purpose.

Abortion: Is the termination of a pregnancy after, accompanied by, resulting in, or closely followed by the death of the embryo.


Sex: The state of being male or female, men or male animals as a group or women or female animals as a group or women or female animals as a group, physical activity in which people touch each other’s bodies.

Puberty: Is the condition of being or the period of becoming first capable of reproducing sexually mature.



Base on the findings of this study, it was concluded that lack of sex education and socio-economic status of parent bring about teenage pregnancy. Teenage pregnancy according to educational level showed that teenager who dropped out of school had a higher pregnancy rate than those who are still schooling.

It is also concluded that teenage pregnancy tended to be higher in teenagers who are not God fearing. Associated factors of teenage include; ignorance of safe and unsafe period of sex, peer group influence, strong sexual urge, maturity, poverty and desire for wealth contribute to teenage pregnancy.


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Peter Hezekiah

I am Peter Hezekiah, a Nigerian. A graduate of Economics/Education. I'm the Editor in (A online company that deals with writing of final year project and provision of project materials of any topic to final year project students). My personal email is My personal number; +2347068634102

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