Factors Affecting the Teaching and Learning of Biology in Senior Secondary School

Factors Affecting the Teaching and Learning of Biology in Senior Secondary School

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1.1     Background to the study

Education system in Nigeria has been in crisis for many years largely due to the fact that the sector is poorly funded. This has led to shortage supply of learning materials and human resources being experienced in the system. Inadequate qualified teachers, high turnover rate of teachers, shortage of classroom, and poor remuneration of teachers and a host of other problems abound in the education sector. The economic crisis experienced in Nigeria impacted on the education system. This plays a major role in the decline of the quality of Education offered in the country (Olabiyi and Abayomi 2010).


Biology is one of the science subjects that senior secondary school students offer at the senior levels in the Nigerian secondary schools, (FRN, 2014). Biology is a very important science subject and a requirement for further learning of a number of science-related professional courses like medicine, agriculture, pharmacy, etc.

Today, Biology pervades literally every field of human endeavour, and plays a fundamental role in educational advancement. However, the issue remains that in most secondary schools in Nigeria, there is high rate of failure in the subject.

Biology is a branch of science that deals with the study of living organisms. Also, Biology is primarily concerned with the nature of organisms and their relationship to each other and to their environment.

Biology as a subject endeavors to enable one understand himself/herself, understand major biological processes. That take place within himself/herself; for example digestion, respiration, circulation, excretion and gaseous exchange.

Through Biology organisms tend to appreciate the influence of these biological processes and the larger environment as a whole.

The general goals of Biology Education is to equip the learner with the basic knowledge, skills and attitude. That will enable one to lead an independent and useful life both to the learner and the larger community.

Considering its fundamental characteristics and importance. Biology is today a standard subject of instruction at all levels of our educational systems. From pre-primary to tertiary. It is the only core science subject at Secondary School Certificate Examination (SSCE). Whose study is very relevant to man’s successful living (Akindele, 2019).

The Biology subject caters for the needs of a learner who may pursue his /her studies in the subject and its related disciplines. Students who do well in examinations get a chance of proceeding to higher levels of studies and consequently, being a source to manpower in many biologically related careers.

Failure in Biology means a general shortage of manpower in these Biology-related professions. This is because Biology forms the basis of important disciplines such as Medicine, Veterinary, Dentistry, Agriculture and Forestry. Besides, Biology has played a very important role in providing knowledge for current biological issues such as Biotechnology, Genetic engineering, waste disposal and food security.

In addition, instructional spaces planning, administrative places planning, circulation spaces planning, spaces for conveniences planning, accessories planning. The teachers as well as the students themselves are essential in teaching-learning process especially Biology.

The extent to which student learning could be enhanced depends on their location within the school compound, the structure of their classroom, availability of instructional facilities and accessories. It is believed that a well planned school will gear up expected outcomes of education. That will facilitate good social, political and economic emancipation, effective teaching and learning process and academic performance of the students.

Beyond the direct influences that poor facilities have on students’ ability to learn, the combination of poor facilities. Which create an uncomfortable and uninviting workplace for teachers, combined with frustrating behavior by students including poor concentration and hyperactivity, lethargy, or apathy, creates a stressful set of working conditions for teachers. Because stress and job dissatisfaction are common pre-cursors to lowered teacher enthusiasm. It is possible that the aforementioned characteristics of school facilities have an influence upon the academic performance of students.


According to Nakpodia and Urien (2011), the teacher stands out as one the most important factors determining the quality of education. Its contributions to national development. At every level, people who go to school look on the teacher for the acquisition of the necessary skills to enable them become what they want to be. Thus, students often look on the personal qualities, their educational qualities and professional competence which are rewarding to the learners.

It is on this note that the role of educational administrators in assisting teachers. To help students achieve the objective of instructions in their various fields of endeavor stands paramount and a challenge in the 21st century.


Previous studies have investigated the relationship of poor school environment including problems with student-teacher ratio. School location, school population, classroom ventilation, poor lighting in classrooms, and inconsistent temperatures in the classroom. With student health problems, student behavior, and student achievement (Crandell & Smaldino, 2010; Davis, 2011; Johnson, 2011). To complement these studies, the present research will examine the aforementioned factors as it influence students performance in Biology.


1.2    Statement of the Problem

The performance of biology in secondary schools in recent decades has been rapidly dropping. The trend shows there is speed downfall of performance in biology and other science subjects especially in secondary schools. Also, the failures in science subjects may results into shortage of science experts like doctors, engineers, and teachers. Therefore there is a need to investigate on what are the root causes and factors influences poor performance in biology, and how to eradicate the problem.

Hence this study will examine Factors Affecting the Teaching and Learning of Biology in Senior Secondary School.


1.3     Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study was to examine Factors Affecting the Teaching and Learning of Biology in Senior Secondary School. Specifically, this study seeks to examine:

  1. The relationship between students related factors and the student academic performance
  2. The impact of home related factors on the academic performance of  students  in the secondary school
  3. How school related factors influence the academic performance of  students  in the secondary school


1.4     Research Questions

  1. Is there any relationship between students related factors and the student academic performance in biology?
  2. To what extent does home related factors influence student performance in secondary school in biology?
  3. What influence does school related factors has on the academic performance of students in biology in secondary school?


1.5     Research Hypothesis

  1. There is no significant relationship between students related factors and the student academic performance in biology.
  2. There is no significant relationship between home related factors and academic performance of students in biology.
  3. There is no significant relationship between schools related factors and academic performance of biology students.


1.6     Significance of the Study

It is hoped that this study will provide information for parents, educators and school administrators to reflect upon various factors that help students in achieving their academic goals. In so doing, they can investigate the possibility of introducing those factors to their school. Which may consequently lead to enhancing students’ educational outcomes in school.

In addition, the fact that this study is conducted in public schools, it shares quite a lot of similarities with many other counterparts. Therefore, this study provides a valuable reference for other schools to reflect upon the school environment as it influence the academic performance of student in secondary school.


1.7     Scope of the Study

This research work focuses on examining Factors Affecting the Teaching and Learning of Biology in Senior Secondary School. This research work covers all public secondary schools students in the study area.


1.8  Limitation of the Study

Apart  from  time-frame  and  shortage  of  finance.  The  major  limitation to  this  research  is  the  inability  of  the  researcher  to  cover  the  whole public secondary school in the study area as the title suggest.

1.10   Definition of Terms

Biology: A natural science subject which study all living things of contents from in the biosphere and earth surface.

Students related factors: Factors such as individual motivation and interest, mental concentration, participation in extracurricular activities, and self-directedness in learning, as well as students’ sense of satisfaction with learning

Home related factors: The home environment means the family background of the child, which includes all the human and material resources present in the home, that influence child’s living such as the parent’s level of education, occupation, social-economic status and the socializing facilities available in the house.

School related factors: These factors refer to observable instructional behaviour of teachers in the classroom rather than on factors that may explain such behaviour (e.g. teacher beliefs and knowledge and interpersonal competences)

Effect: The capacity to have an effect on the character, development, or behaviour of someone or something, or the effect itself.

Academic performance: Academic performance is the measurement of student achievement across various academic subjects.

Joselyn Nya

My Name is Joselyn Nya A Publisher in Project Boss Team. I'm a Nigerian I'm a graduate/Educational Researcher. Project Boss Team. We are the best for Project materials and project writing services. Email:

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