Research Proposals



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1.1          Background to the Study

Biology is a study of the nature of life, that is, a persistent inquiry. Biology includes microscopic molecules and cells that comprise organisms and the world of living creatures on a global scale. According to Sadava and Urry (2021) as cited in Basil (2023), the study on factors affecting biology teaching and teachers’ motivation in secondary schools aims to explore the various elements that influence the quality of biology education and the motivation levels of biology teachers in secondary school settings.

Biology is a fundamental subject within the science curriculum, providing students with essential knowledge about living organisms and their interactions with the environment.


Teaching biology in secondary schools is a complex task that requires a deep understanding of the subject matter, effective pedagogical skills, and a supportive learning environment. However, there are several factors that can impact biology teaching and teachers’ motivation, which can ultimately affect student learning outcomes

Therefore, understanding the factors that impact biology teaching and teacher motivation is crucial for improving the overall quality of science education. The search for a more effective approach for the acquisition of process skills has persisted over the years. This is because, the acquisition of science process skills are the bases for scientific inquiry and the development of intellectual skills and attitudes that are needed to learn concepts (Udumo, Uba, Nwabiuke, Elemi, Emmanuel,Eze, Odumegwu 2020).

One significant factor that affects biology teaching is the availability of resources and instructional materials, adequate access to textbooks, laboratory equipment, and other teaching aids can greatly enhance the effectiveness of biology instruction.



Furthermore, the quality and relevance of these resources play a vital role in engaging students and promoting their understanding of biological concepts (Idika, Ovat, Achighe, & Udumo , 2019).

Another factor that influences biology teaching is the professional development opportunities available to teachers. Continuous training programs, workshops, and conferences provide teachers with updated knowledge and teaching strategies. These opportunities not only enhance their content knowledge but also improve their pedagogical skills, enabling them to deliver biology lessons more effectively.

The classroom environment also plays a crucial role in biology teaching. Factors such as class size, student behavior, and classroom management strategies can significantly impact teacher motivation and instructional practices. A positive classroom climate that promotes active student participation and fosters a supportive learning environment can enhance both student engagement and teacher satisfaction.


Additionally, the support provided by school administrators and colleagues is essential for promoting effective biology teaching. Collaborative relationships among teachers can facilitate the sharing of best practices, resources, and ideas. Supportive administrators who value science education can create an environment that encourages innovation and professional growth among biology teachers.

Lastly, external factors such as standardized testing and curriculum requirements may influence biology teaching practices. The pressure to meet specific academic standards or achieve high test scores can impact instructional decisions made by teachers. Understanding how these external factors affect biology teaching can help identify potential areas for improvement in curriculum design and assessment practices (Nja, Cornelius-Ukpepi, Edoho, Neji, 2020).

Overall, investigating the factors that affect biology teaching and teachers’ motivation in secondary schools is crucial for enhancing the quality of science education. By identifying these factors, educational policymakers, school administrators, and teachers can work collaboratively to create an environment that supports effective biology instruction and promotes teacher motivation. Therefore, this study aimed to examine factors affecting biology teaching and teachers motivation in secondary Schools


1.2          Statement of the Problem

The annual release of SSCE results conducted by the WAEC justified the problematic nature and generalization of poor secondary school students’ performance in different school subject including Biology. It is believed that if Biology concepts are not taught from known to unknown and from simple to complex, it is likely that students might find it difficult to understand the concepts taught.

Biology is a  basic science subject taught at most of the secondary schools in Nigeria, because it is a pre-requisite to study medicine,  pharmacy,  nursing,  science  education,  and  other  related  science  courses  at  Universities, polytechnics, colleges, and other advanced.


However, despite the popularity of biology subject in science and in the state among schools and students,  several  reports  and  studies are  still depicting  indices  of  poor  performance  in the  subject (Ashafa, 2023). Albeit, many studies have successfully narrated several suggestions responsible for poor biology performance, one of the reasons submitted was the several factors affecting biology teaching and teachers motivation in secondary Schools.

However, since one of the purposes of education is the acquisition of knowledge and skills, students’ performance after graduation can be seen as a reflection of their performance in school. However, a lot of factors may inhibit or hinder effective dissemination of knowledge to the understanding of the content of students. Therefore, this study aimed to examine factors affecting biology teaching and teachers motivation in secondary Schools



Based on the findings of the study, biology teaching in secondary schools aims to develop students’ knowledge and skills related to living organisms, their interactions, and the underlying principles governing life processes. Effective biology teaching requires teachers to possess a deep understanding of the subject matter, pedagogical knowledge, and effective instructional strategies.

Furthermore, teachers need to be motivated to deliver engaging lessons that foster student interest and promote active learning.


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Peter Hezekiah

I am Peter Hezekiah, a Nigerian. A graduate of Economics/Education. I'm the Editor in (A online company that deals with writing of final year project and provision of project materials of any topic to final year project students). My personal email is My personal number; +2347068634102

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