Research Proposals



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Title Page


Approval Page




Table of Contents

List of Tables

List of Appendices



1.1       Background to the Study

1.2       Statement of the Problem

1.3       Purpose of the Study

1.4       Research Questions


1.5       Hypotheses

1.6       Significance of the Study

1.7       Scope of the Study

1.8       Definition of Terms



2.1       Theoretical Framework

2.2       Conceptual Review

2.3       Review of Empirical Studies

2.4       Summary of Literature Review

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD                                                                

3.1       Research Design

3.2       Area of the Study

3.3       Population of the Study

3.4       Sample and Sampling Technique


3.5       Instrumentation

3.5.1    Validation of the Instrument

3.5.2           Reliability of the Instrument

3.6       Procedure for Data Collection

3.7       Method of Data Analysis



4.1       Answering the Research Questions

4.2       Testing the Hypotheses

4.3       Summary of Findings

4.4       Discussion of Findings



5.1       Summary

5.2       Educational Implications of the Findings

5.3       Conclusion


5.4       Recommendations

5.5       Limitations of the Study

5.6       Suggestions for further Study






1.1    Background to the Study

The hospitality industry in Nigeria has long been recognized as a vital sector contributing significantly to the nation’s economy, employment rates, and cultural identity (Okorie, Emecheta, & Ugwoke, 2021). With its diverse offerings ranging from hotels, restaurants, bars, and tourism attractions, the sector has historically thrived, attracting both domestic and international visitors.

However, the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic in late 2019 introduced unprecedented challenges that have profoundly impacted the hospitality industry worldwide, including Nigeria.

The COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, rapidly spread across the globe, prompting governments to implement strict containment measures such as lockdowns, travel restrictions, and social distancing protocols (Ogunleye & Fasan, 2020).



Furthermore, in Nigeria, these measures were swiftly adopted to mitigate the spread of the virus, resulting in profound disruptions to the hospitality sector. The implementation of lockdowns and travel restrictions led to a dramatic decline in tourist arrivals, conferences, and events, consequently causing a significant drop in revenue for hospitality establishments across the country.

It has been observed that most hospitality industry is not having up to 40% occupancy in their business (Kayode, 2015) and that was before the outbreak of the pandemic.

The hospitality industry as observed by Eja, Otu, Agbor and Inyang (2013) vis-a-vis the hotel industry is capable of shouldering the challenges of sustainable development and also boosting the image of tourism in Nigeria. It would not be exaggeration to say that hospitality industry is seriously in jeopardy as a result of the outbreak of Corona virus pandemic in Nigeria.


Undeniably, the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the hospitality industry in Nigeria have been multifaceted. Firstly, the sudden decrease in demand for hospitality services resulted in widespread closures of hotels, restaurants, and other establishments, leading to massive job losses and economic instability within the sector (Ogundele, Agbonkhese, and Nwankwo, 2020).

Secondly, the implementation of social distancing protocols and health guidelines imposed additional operational challenges for hospitality businesses, requiring investments in hygiene, safety measures, and staff training to ensure compliance and regain consumer trust. Effects of covid-19 on hospitality industries in Nigeria.

Moreover, the pandemic-induced economic downturn exacerbated existing challenges faced by the Nigerian hospitality industry, including infrastructural deficiencies, inadequate government support, and fluctuating exchange rates. These factors have further hindered the sector’s ability to recover and adapt to the evolving business landscape shaped by the pandemic.


In addition, according to Oruonye and Ahmed (2020) the hotels and hospitality sector is a major revenue earner for the Nigerian economy with potentials of creating thousands of jobs annually. The hotels and hospitality subsector have also had their own share of the challenges from the Covid-19 lockdown policy of government of Nigeria.

Without a doubt, most restaurant businesses became greatly affected with government announcement of stay-at-home policy, social distancing and movement restrictions. Thus, this led to rapid shutdown in cities and states in Nigeria to control the spread of Covid-19 disease, which threw many restaurants and hotels across the country into economic shocks.

In fact, as the COVID-19 pandemic continues to evolve, with new variants and waves posing ongoing threats, understanding the lasting effects on the hospitality industry in Nigeria is crucial for policymakers, industry stakeholders, and academic researchers alike. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the effects of covid-19 on hospitality industries in Nigeria.


1.2    Statement of the Problem

The outbreak and spread of Covid-19 affected the hospitality industry most. The era has witnessed countries of the world placing travel bans and restrictions and closure of their borders, cruise companies and hotels. Hospitality industry continues to face declining demand and patronage.

The COVID-19 pandemic has inflicted unprecedented disruptions on the hospitality industry in Nigeria, presenting multifaceted challenges that threaten the viability and sustainability of businesses within the sector.

Firstly, the implementation of containment measures such as lockdowns and travel restrictions has resulted in a sharp decline in tourist arrivals, conferences, and events, leading to a significant decrease in revenue for hospitality establishments across the country. Thus, this reduction in demand has forced many businesses to close temporarily or permanently, resulting in widespread job losses and economic instability within the industry.


Secondly, the pandemic has imposed additional operational challenges on hospitality businesses, particularly in terms of implementing and adhering to stringent health and safety protocols. The need to invest in measures such as enhanced sanitation, social distancing, and staff training has strained already limited resources, further exacerbating financial pressures on businesses already grappling with reduced revenue streams. Effects of covid-19 on hospitality industries in Nigeria.

Moreover, the uncertainty surrounding the duration and severity of the pandemic has made long-term planning and strategic decision-making exceptionally challenging for industry stakeholders, hindering efforts to effectively navigate the crisis and position businesses for recovery.

Thirdly, the pandemic has exposed and intensified existing structural weaknesses and vulnerabilities within the Nigerian hospitality industry, including infrastructural deficiencies, inadequate government support, and dependence on international tourism.

Indeed, these issues have been magnified by the economic downturn triggered by the pandemic, amplifying the urgency for comprehensive interventions and strategic initiatives to address systemic challenges and foster resilience within the sector. Hence, there is a critical need for in-depth research to assess the full extent of the impact of COVID-19 on the hospitality industry in Nigeria and identify targeted interventions and policy measures to support recovery efforts and ensure the long-term sustainability of businesses within the sector.


1.3    Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study was to examine the effects of covid-19 on hospitality industries in Nigeria a case study of Uyo Local Government Area. Specifically, the study aimed to:

(1)     To determine if Covid-19 pandemic has negatively impacted on hospitality industry in Nigeria

(2)     To assess the issues and challenges arising from Covid-19 pandemic.

(3)     To examine the prospects of hospitality industry in a Covid-19 pandemic era for sustainable development.


1.4    Research Questions

The following research questions were formulated to guide the study.

(1)     Does Covid-19 pandemic have negative impact on hospitality industry in Nigeria?

(2)     What are the issues and challenges arising from Covid-19 pandemic?

(3)     What are the prospects of hospitality industry in a Covid-19 pandemic era for sustainable development?


1.5    Significance of the Study

The study will be of importance in the following ways:-

  • Firstly, this study will provide critical insights for policymakers, offering targeted interventions to support the hospitality industry in Nigeria post-COVID-19. These insights will inform policies aimed at fostering recovery and enhancing resilience against future crises.
  • Secondly, this research will offer practical guidance for enhancing adaptability and resilience within the industry, aiding strategic decision-making and contingency planning. Effects of covid-19 on hospitality industries in Nigeria.


  • Furthermore, this study will help in understanding the pandemic’s impact is crucial for devising effective recovery strategies that prioritize job creation, investment, and sustainable growth.
  • In addition, this study will inform targeted interventions to revive the tourism sector, promoting sustainable tourism development and harnessing Nigeria’s tourism potential.
  • Also, this study will enrich academic literature on crisis management in the hospitality sector, providing a foundation for further research and offering valuable insights for researchers, academics, and students.
  • Lastly, the study will serve as a reference point or material for other researchers who may like to carry out research on the similar topic.


1.6    Limitation of the Study

Some of the challenges encountered while conducting the research include lack of sufficient funds and short duration assigned for the study.

1.7    Delimitation of the Study

For the purpose of effective research work, this study was delimited to the effects of covid-19 on hospitality industries in Uyo Local Government Area.


1.8    Operation Definitions of Terms:

The following concepts are defined as they are applied in the study.

Effect: Effect is defined as a change that is a result or consequence of an action or other cause. It refers to the impact or influence that one thing has on another. In brief, effects can be positive, negative, or neutral, and they can vary in magnitude and duration depending on the context in which they occur.

Covid-19: COVID-19, short for “coronavirus disease 2019,” is a highly infectious respiratory illness caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. The disease was first identified in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and has since spread globally, leading to a pandemic declared by the World Health Organization in March 2020.

Hospitality industry: The hospitality industry refers to the broad category of services that cater to the needs of travelers and tourists. It encompasses a wide range of businesses and establishments that provide accommodation, food and beverage services, entertainment, transportation, and other amenities for individuals or groups away from their homes.



In conclusion, the effects of COVID-19 on the hospitality industry in Nigeria have been profound and multifaceted, encompassing economic downturns, operational disruptions, and shifts in consumer behavior. The pandemic exposed vulnerabilities and inequalities within the industry while highlighting the importance of resilience, adaptability, and innovation in navigating crises. Effects of covid-19 on hospitality industries in Nigeria.

However, as Nigeria and the world emerge from the pandemic, strategic investments in technology, sustainability, and collaboration will be essential for the hospitality sector to rebuild, recover, and thrive in the post-pandemic era. By leveraging lessons learned from the challenges faced during the pandemic, the hospitality industry in Nigeria can position itself for long-term success while continuing to provide exceptional experiences for guests and contributing to economic growth and social development.

Therefore, based on the findings draw the following conclusions:-

  • There have been negative impacts of Covid-19 pandemic on hospitality industry in Nigeria.
  • There have been several issues and challenges arising from Covid-19 pandemic which affect hospitality industry in Nigeria.
  • Issues of economic losses, job losses and salary cut have affected hospitality industry in Nigeria as a result of Covid-19 pandemic.
  • Declining patronage, sharp drop in sales and booking cancellations are challenges faced by hospitality industry in Nigeria as a result of Covid-19 pandemic.


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Ikemesit Akpan is my name. I am a Nigerian author. I work with I'm a researcher and a writer of academic research.

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