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EFFECT OF TEENAGE PREGNANCY ON EDUCATION OF FEMALE SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

EFFECT OF TEENAGE PREGNANCY ON EDUCATION OF FEMALE SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Abstract

Table of Contents

CHAPTER ONE      –      INTRODUCTION

1.1  Background of the Study

1.2  Statement of the Problem

1.3  Purpose of the study

1.5  Significance of the study

 

1.6  Research Questions

1.7  Research Hypotheses

1.8  Limitation of the Study

1.9  Delimitation of the study

1.10 Operational Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO – REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

CHAPTER THREE – RESEARCH DESIGN AND

METHODOLOGY

3.1  Research Design

3.2  Area of the Study

3.3  Population of the study

3.4  Sample and Sampling Procedure

 

3.5  Instrumentation

3.6  Validation of Instrument

3.7  Administration of Questionnaire

3.8  Scoring of Instrument

3.9  Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR       –       DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION

OF FINDINGS

4.1  Summary of Findings

 

4.2  Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE     – SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND

RECOMMENDATION

 

5.1  Introduction

5.2  Summary

5.3. Conclusion

5.4  Recommendation

References

Appendices

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study

Teenage pregnancy has become a public health issue because of its observed negative effects and cause on perinatal outcomes and long term morbidity. One of significant societal challenges generating debates amongst researchers and plaguing developing and developed societies is the teenage pregnancy as its impact on societal advancement, mortality rate, educational enrollment/attainment as well as child and psychological development has reached alarming levels globally (Alabi & Oni, 2017).

 

Odiri and Anthonia (2023), defined teenage pregnancy as a pregnancy that occurs in young girls between the ages of 13 and 19. It can be characterized as underage pregnancy, which occurs when a woman is between the ages of 13 and 19 (Alabi & Oni, 2017).

Most of these births are unplanned and unwanted, and they occur as a result of a lack of knowledge about contraception, reproductive health, and the risks associated with pregnancy. When a young woman becomes pregnant while unmarried, it is an unwanted and unpleasant pregnancy. Generally speaking, it is understood to be a girl or lady who fell pregnant before reaching sexual maturity.

Being pregnant is the condition in which a woman or girl has an embryo or fetus growing inside of her (Clementina, 2015).

 

Typically, pregnancy results from sexual activity between a young girl in puberty and a boy who has reached puberty. Until the baby is delivered, the adolescent girl’s menstrual cycle will often stop at this stage. Pregnancy is the result of young girls’ eggs being fertilized by puberty-aged male sperm.

According to Brown (2013, cited in Amadi, 2019) teenage pregnancy is a societal problem that sees adult functions such as sexual intercourse, nursing and reproduction performed by an individual deemed by the society as a child.

 

EFFECT OF TEENAGE PREGNANCY ON EDUCATION OF FEMALE SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS

Furthermore, it can be defined as the process of pregnancy that is occasioned by the drug abuse and sexual exploitation of a child (Ghose and John, 2017). As such, it can be deduced as the situation where an under aged girl undergoes physical and psychological functions usually reserved for adults.

Without reservation, teenage pregnancy is a unwelcome phenomenon which ensues amongst academically and financially challenged females (Undiyaundeye, Agba & Mandeun, 2015). In the Nigeria, a report by the Demographic and Health Survey establishes that about 23% of females aged between 15-19 years are bearing children while 10 percent of adolescents residing in rural areas are already bearing children compared to the 32 percent of adolescents in urban locations (DHS, 2013). Thus, indicating that teenage pregnancy is on the rise in the country (Egbule, & Ugoji, 2000)

Each year, over 20 million girls (15 to 19 years) in developing countries become pregnant and an estimated 12 million of the population give birth (Darroch, Timbiri, Egbochukuu, Woog, Bankole and Ashford; 2016, WHO, 2022).

 

Data on births from adolescent girls below the age of 15 in developing countries is not readily available, limited data from Nigeria, Angola, Bangladesh and Mozambique point to birth rates in this age group exceeding 10 births per 1000 girls as at 2020 (United Nations, 2020). The effects of teenage pregnancy are many and far reaching.

In Asia, Africa, Middle East and some parts of Europe, illiteracy, societal practices, rebellion, media, poverty and peer pressure encourage girls to enter into sexual relationship at an early age.

 

According to Onyido & Brambaifa (2018) child marriage is universal issue that is popularly practiced in developing countries and current estimated projects that about 16 million girls are married off every year (WHO, 2018). In addition, poverty and educational attainment force girls into sexual relationships without realizing the risk to sexually transmitted diseases, pregnancy, abortion, depression and low educational involvement they expose themselves to (Amadi, 2019). According to Chiazor,

Ozoyam Idowu, Udume & Osagide (2017) teenage pregnancy leads to early entrance into poverty and informal labour. Buttressing this viewpoint, a number of studies have established the correlation between teenage mothers and poverty (Tamkins, 2004; Undiyaundeye, Agba & Mandeun, 2015).

 

According to Anochie & Ikpeme (2011 cited in Amadi, 2019) teenagers mothers are likely to have challenges in their educational attainment and in the long run become a burden to the society at large as such there is need to tackle this condemnable trend. This is particularly true because studies have established the preventive impact of education on teenage pregnancy (Ghose and John, 2017).

Furthermore, Akanbi, Afolabi and Aremu (2020) and Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (2016) revealed that effects of teenage pregnancy include preterm labour, intrauterine growth, sexually transmitted infections, sexual violence and limited access to medical services; they also suffer depression, frustration, stigmatization, and post-partum depression, this greatly affects their emotional, mental and psychological health. The risk of neonatal mortality is markedly greater for infants with mothers under 16 years old (Neal, Channon & Chintsanya, 2018).

Social factors such as; decreased supervision by parents, early initiation to sexual activities, and pressure from families to marry at an early age are some of the contributing factors of teenage pregnancy (Anena, Orishaba & Mwesigwa, 2020).

 

According to Kamila and Vanessa (2023) teenage pregnancy leads to consequences for teenage mothers and their children in the present and future. These consequences can be summarized in three main dimensions: health, education, and labour market outcomes. These dimensions individually and collectively limit the development and growth opportunities for these mothers and have negative impacts on the prospects for their children.

Regarding the education of teenage mothers, a significant problem arising from teenage pregnancies is high dropout rates. Although efforts have been made by schools to avoid excluding pregnant students, these strategies prove ineffective when there is insufficient support and an environment of bullying towards pregnant girls emerges. Kamila and Vanessa (2023) added that, school dropouts often result in diminished future employment opportunities and hinder personal and professional development.

In addition, there is a greater likelihood of unemployment or lower labour income for these young mothers, increasing the risk of poverty (Cook and Cameron 2015).

 

Studies have linked neighbourhood poverty, negative peer influence, weak parental control and relationships, lack of sexual health knowledge and risky sexual practices to causes of unwanted pregnancies. For example, Otegbayo, Omar, Danaee, Mohajer and Aghamohamadi (2023) found that living in a poor residential environment, where access to basic amenities was a luxury, encouraged negative peer influence leading to early sexual debut among respondents.

Socio-economic status was identified as an indicator of poverty in the neighbourhood. This makes teenage girls vulnerable to early social independence and may promote negative peer pressure. The lack of sexual health facilities and recreational activities or community tasks to engage teenagers in the environment also exacerbates the consequences of risky sexual behaviour and increases the risk of unwanted pregnancies (Otegbayo, Omar, Danaee, Mohajer and Aghamohamadi, 2023).

Pregnant students’ decisions to continue or discontinue their studies may depend on their academic performance (Timæus and Moultrie, 2015). Like all other adolescents, pregnant female students face the same challenges as other students because they are students first and expectant mothers second.

 

Unfortunately, pregnant female students are treated with hostility, stigma, and ridicule by both teachers and their peers, which reduces their motivation to learn (Runhare, Kanaga-Majanga, Mathebula, 2021). These and other difficulties increase the likelihood of school dropout among this target group. It is likely that the lack of adequate social and environmental support for pregnant teens may negatively affect their academic success.

Undoubtedly, getting pregnant as a teenager is difficult; therefore, the combination of pregnancy and school and lack of support can exacerbate the experience and discourage female teens from continuing their education. And because the United Nations considers education a basic human right, the lack of support for academic achievement or improvement can be seen as a violation of that right (Unicef, 2021).

 

In addition, young girls and the female population continue to be denied their rights to social and economic prospects due to teenage pregnancies (Unicef, 2021). This has consistently exposed women to the dangers of domestic violence, lack of sexual autonomy, child marriage, unemployment, and poverty (Joel, 2021).

Teenage pregnancy poses a threat to the life of the teenage mother such as; high blood pressure, anaemia, isolation, post-partum depression, obstructed labour, premature delivery, contracting STI’s, hemorrhage and death. Teenage pregnancy can also lead to low educational achievement, school drop-out, poor health and poverty. Pregnancy at an early age is risky for the mother and the baby.

 

In Nigeria, teen pregnancy-related school drop-out rates continue to increase the illiteracy rate of women (Adebola, 2018; Ekeng, and Ekefre,2014). According to the Nigerian Demographic Health Survey (NDHS), the adolescent birth rate in 2018 was 106 births per 1,000 women.

Bauchi state had the highest number of adolescent births (198), while Imo state had the least. Generally, adolescent births seem to be higher in the North, specifically in the North-Western Zone where the median age of first marriage and first intercourse is approximately 16 years (NDHS, 2018).

Despite numerous studies on the causes and consequences of teenage pregnancy, teenage pregnancies continue to rise and pose a threat to the education and academic integration of pregnant teenage female students.

The question arguably remains whether teenage pregnancy should continue to threaten the educational progress of this vulnerable population knowing that this will further increase female illiteracy and make women vulnerable to gender inequality, domestic violence, unemployment, and poverty.

 

It is important to examine the effect if teenage pregnancy on education of pregnant female students in Nigeria as there is limited evidence on this topic. Studies in this direction can provide new insights that can guide policy makers in developing social intervention strategies for the integration of teenage students into the academic space.

Also, despite the enormous resources devoted to preventing teen pregnancy, more females become pregnant each year. Which begs the question, “Should teenage pregnancy continue to deny females their fundamental right to education?“ Noting that if the causes of this pregnancy are not addressed, it may be more difficult for them to achieve academic success.

Therefore, this study aims to examine the effect of teenage pregnancy on education of female secondary school students in government secondary schools.

 

1.2     Statement of the Problem

Teenage age, often known as adolescence, is a time of transition marked by stress and anxiety. Unfortunately, young people often lack the necessary experience to cope effectively with this stress.

Without proper guidance, teenagers are prone to engaging in self-destructive behaviours that can lead to pregnancy, abortion and other issues. Many parents feel that their young ones will be taught sex education in school while the schools have failed to meet that demand. So there is no good foundation of sex education both in school and at home, and there is also the powerful influence of the media.

Teenagers usually spend more time watching sexual contents on TV and they are more likely to practice these behaviors in real life.

Teenage pregnancy poses a threat to the life of the teenage mother such as; high blood pressure, anaemia, isolation, post-partum depression, obstructed labour, premature delivery, contracting STI’s, hemorrhage and death. Teenage pregnancy can also lead to low educational achievement, school drop-out, poor health and poverty.

Pregnancy at an early age is risky for the mother and the baby. Moreover, babies born to adolescents also face a significantly higher risk of death compared to babies born to older women (Timbiri and Egbochukuu, 2023). Teenage pregnancy also has significant long term social consequences for the adolescent, the child given birth to, the families involved and the community at large. This study therefore aims to examine the effect of teenage pregnancy on education of female secondary school students in government secondary schools.

 

1.3       Purposes of the Study

The main purpose of this study was to examine the effect of teenage pregnancy on education of female secondary school students in government secondary schools. The specific objectives are:

  1. to examine the perceived effects of teenage pregnancy among female secondary school students.
  2. to examine the perceived causes of teenage pregnancy among secondary school students.
  3. to examine how female secondary school students engage in practices leading to teenage pregnancy.

 

1.4       Research Questions

                        The following research questions guided the study:

  1. What are the perceived effects of teenage pregnancy among female secondary school students?
  2. What are the perceived causes of teenage pregnancy among secondary school students?
  3. To what extent do female secondary school students engage in practices leading to teenage pregnancy?

 

1.5       Significance of the Study

The study will be of importance in the following ways:-

  • This study will enlighten the study in understanding the link between early marriage and teenage pregnancy, and importance of girl-child education in the society.
  • This study will help identify the underlying causes and risk factors, leading to the development of effective prevention strategies.
  • This study will shed light on the barriers and challenges faced by girls in accessing quality education. Thus, by addressing these issues, it becomes possible to enhance educational opportunities for girls and promote gender equality.

 

  • The study will provide valuable data and insights that can inform public policy and programming aimed at preventing teenage pregnancy and promoting the well-being of young women and their children.
  • This is study will importance to policy makers on the insights of the development of evidence-based policies and programs aimed at addressing the specific needs of adolescent girls.

 

  • The study will enlighten the society by understanding the factors contributing to this phenomenon, and gives information on the interventions that reduce school dropout rates and ensure continued education for adolescent girls.
  • Also, the study serves as a mean of enlightenment to all and sundry to discourage parents from gender disparity, discrimination and preferential treatment among their children. Again, all should know that to train a man is to train a man or an individual but to train a woman is to train a nation or a generation.

 

Operational Definition of Terms

Effect: This refers to the outcome or consequence of a particular action or set of actions.

Teenage pregnancy: Teenage pregnancy is a pregnancy that occurs in a female under the age of 20.

Pregnancy: According to this work, pregnancy refers to the fertilization of the female egg by the male sperm in the fallopian tube and its implantation in the uterus (Womb) of the female.

 

Adolescence: This is the period of transition from childhood to adulthood and describes both the development to sexual maturity and to psychological and relative economic in dependence, thus, adolescents are those that fall between the age of 10-19.

Sex education: Sex education refers to the process of acquiring knowledge and understanding about human sexuality, sexual health, and sexual behavior. It includes learning about anatomy, physiology, consent, communication, and other aspects of sexual health, as well as how to navigate relationships and make informed decisions about one’s own sexual life.

 

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Ikemesit

Ikemesit Akpan is my name. I am a Nigerian author. I work with projectboss.com.ng. I'm a researcher and a writer of academic research. ikemesitetukapan20233@gmail.com

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