Research Proposals



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Title Page


Approval Page




Table of Contents

List of Tables

List of Appendices



1.1       Background to the Study

1.2       Statement of the Problem

1.3       Purpose of the Study

1.4       Research Questions


1.5       Hypotheses

1.6       Significance of the Study

1.7       Scope of the Study

1.8       Definition of Terms



2.1       Theoretical Framework

2.2       Conceptual Review

2.3       Review of Empirical Studies

2.4       Summary of Literature Review

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD                                                                

3.1       Research Design

3.2       Area of the Study

3.3       Population of the Study

3.4       Sample and Sampling Technique


3.5       Instrumentation

3.5.1    Validation of the Instrument

3.5.2           Reliability of the Instrument

3.6       Procedure for Data Collection

3.7       Method of Data Analysis



4.1       Answering the Research Questions

4.2       Testing the Hypotheses

4.3       Summary of Findings

4.4       Discussion of Findings



5.1       Summary

5.2       Educational Implications of the Findings

5.3       Conclusion

5.4       Recommendations

5.5       Limitations of the Study

5.6       Suggestions for further Study






1.1    Background to the study

Without a doubt, the primary purpose of teaching at any level of education is to bring a fundamental change in the learner (Tebabal & Kahssay, 2021). Moreover, to facilitate the process of knowledge transmission, teachers should apply appropriate teaching methods that best suit specific objectives and level exit outcomes.

Teaching is a continuous process that involves bringing about desirable changes in learners through the use of appropriate methods.

In order to bring desirable changes in students, teaching methods used by teacher should be best for the subject. Appropriate teaching methods enhance work effective learning if they suit learners’ needs because every learner interprets and responds to questions in a diverse ways. As such, teaching methods that suits students’ needs effect students’ academic attainments.



In the traditional epoch, many teaching practitioners widely applied teacher-centered methods to impart knowledge to learners comparative to student-centered methods. Until today, questions about the effectiveness of teaching methods on student learning have consistently raised considerable interest in the thematic field of educational research (Hightower, 2011). Moreover, research on teaching and learning constantly endeavour to examine the extent to which different teaching methods enhance growth in student learning.

Good teaching methods facilitated desirable changes in learners. However, effective teaching requires the teacher to step out of the realm of personal experience and step into the world of the learners. It is the learner who must be engage for learning to occur, the learner is the one who must take the commitment to learn Ekanem (2016). The skillful and competent teacher uses as many methods and techniques as possible because, there is no single method which is regarded as the best for every teaching situation.


In a single lesson therefore, the teacher can employ more than one method to facilitate learning. The success of every method depends on the personality of the teacher and his professional experience in the field of teaching. Studies have shown that coupled with appropriate instructional materials, suitable methods facilitate learning achievement to a large extent. This applies to all levels of education and particularly secondary school which deals with foundation of learning and development.

The use of appropriate teaching method incorporates an ordered way of accomplishing an end or performing a task. Etuk, Afangideh, Uya (2013) as cited in Adediwura and Tayo (2017), described methods as patterns to be followed in teaching/learning process to drive home a point. Whether in formal or informal education effective, teaching method allows for the retention of learnt the concepts.


The extent to which an instructional procedure is potent depends greatly upon its effective use by the instructor and the impression it leaves on the learner, which is usually evident in their attitude as well as performance (Umoren, 2011).

A research on methods of teaching suggest that the ability of the teacher to impart knowledge so depends greatly on the method he applies during the teaching learning process. Where the method is defective, the students stand to lose as they hardly benefit from lessons.


According to Uya (2018), for a teacher to be able to ensure order and enhance classroom learning, they have to possess necessary pedagogical skills which have to be systematic and methodological. They have to explore and make good use of their knowledge of instructional skills/methods, whether the method adopted falls within the spectrum of general or individualized instructional methods (Umoh, 2015).


Furthermore, Esu (2013) opined that teaching, by its nature requires a variety of methods to facilitate teaching/learning in the class and to develop the child’s knowledge and understanding to the maximum.

Obviously, there are many definitions of teaching method by different authors. Specifically, teaching method can be defined as a practical application of teaching principles based on the nature of learner, the nature of the subject and the learning needs of the students/students.


In addition, according to Oyekan (2023), teaching methodology is concerned with what method techniques or approach, individuals or group of teachers select and use in actual classroom situation. Indeed, some of the methods that are applicable to secondary Schools level of education include discussion method, Supervised Activity method, Activity method, Demonstration method, Games method, Excursion method, Storytelling method, Pictorial method and inquiry method.

The success of teaching lies mainly on the know-how of the subject involved and the use of appropriate method(s) that is required per time during the process of transfer of knowledge. In fact, a successful teaching is a product of effective and efficient teaching process. Vin-Mbah (2012) who described teaching as an all-purpose profession engaged in human resource development for individual and economic growth.


Teaching is also as an attempt to help someone acquire or change, some skill, attitude, knowledge, idea or appreciation. In other words, the teacher’s task is to create or effect desirable changes in behaviour, or in tendencies toward behaviour in his students.

In brief, effective teaching involves informing and explaining, stimulating, directing, guiding, administrating, identifying what to learn, method of learning, problems, evaluating, reporting, recording, classroom management, socialization and school-community relationship among others. Methods therefore, refer to the processes and techniques a teacher uses to transmit facts, skills, information and knowledge to the learners so as to facilitate the accomplishment of the set objectives.

Teaching methods that teachers adopt requires some preliminary parathion Kizlik (2022) stated that teaching methods that is right for a particular subject or topic depends on several factors such as the age of the learners, developmental level of the learners, what they already knout and what they need to know to succeed with the lesson, the available resources.


For effective teaching, the following methods are usually adopted for teaching and learning of the subject they include discussion methods, team teaching methods, lecture methods, or play way method, field trip method and problem solving method, project or assignment method among others.

Among the aforementioned teaching methods, some methods can be better than others in the teaching of social studies at the primary level of education; it is on this ground that this study is conducted to examine effect of teaching methods on pupils academic performance in primary schools.


1.2    Statement of the problem

Without reservation, the continuous issue of pupil’s poor academic performance in primary schools in Onitsha North Local Government Area has been the reason for undertaking this research study. Despite the role of government, teachers and parents encourage proper education of the Nigerian child; academic performance of pupils is observed to be very poor. However, the report from the ministry of education promotion examination to primary six on yearly basis show that pupils academic performance depicts a disappointing falling standard.

Furthermore, the society seemed to blame the law academic performance  of pupils on a number of factors including the teaching methods in which this study seeks to confirm and identify the teaching method that can be used to improve academic performance of pupils.

Teachers are therefore saddled with the key responsibilities of imparting the requisite knowledge that will enable the students function well in the society of business. If teaching method adopted in teaching are not adequate or effective, students’ academic performance will be poor and this is a problem. Adunola (2021) stressed that teachers need to be conversant with numerous teaching methods that take recognition of the magnitude of complexity of the concepts to be covered. Therefore, it become imperative to carry out a research study to examine the effect of teaching methods on pupils academic performance in primary schools.


1.3    Purpose of the study

The main purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of teaching methods on pupils academic performance in primary schools in Onitsha North Local Government Area. Specifically, the study aimed at the following objectives:

  • To investigate the effect of play-way method on academic performance among primary schools pupils.
  • To examine the effect of demonstration method on academic performance among primary school pupils.
  • To investigate the effect of role playing method on pupils academic performance.


1.4    Significance of the study

This study would be significant in a number of ways:

  • Firstly, the findings of this study will help teachers to select among the teaching methods that can bring about effective teaching and learning of social studies at the primary levels.
  • Secondly, finding of the study will help the educational planners to send primary school social studies teachers to various re-fresher courses on teaching methods. Effect of teaching methods on pupils academic performance in primary schools.


  • Thirdly, the findings of this study will help them to achieve more from teaching and learning.
  • The findings will help academicians in theory development to explain academic achievement.
  • Lastly, the findings will be important for educational administrators who want to determine the possible required changes to improve academic performance of students.


1.5    Research Questions

The following research questions were formulated to direct the study:

  • How does play-way method of teaching affect pupils academic performance?
  • How does demonstration method of teaching affect pupils’ academic performance?
  • How does role playing teaching method of teaching affect pupils academic performance?


1.6    Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were stated to guide the study:

  • There is no significant difference in academic performance between pupils taught using play-way method and those taught with demonstration method.
  • There is no significant difference in academic performance of pupils taught using role-play method and those taught with demonstration method.


1.7    Limitation of the study

                   The following were limitation of the study:

  • Time constraint as time allowed for the completion of the study was not long enough for the researcher to have a wider scope. Effect of teaching methods on pupils academic performance in primary schools.
  • Inadequate finance at the disposal of the researcher was another major limitation of study.


Definition of Terms

Some terms were defined according to how they are used in the study as follows:

Methods: A way of doing something, especially in a systematic way, it implies an orderly logical arrangement (usually in steps).

Teaching Methods: These refer to ways or approaches of teaching.

Teaching: This involves imparting information to the learner and the acquisition by the learner of specific knowledge, ideas, facts, skill and other relevant data condensed in the information for the learner’s academic and mental development.


Academic Performance: Refers to how students deal with their studies and how they cope with different task given to them by their teachers.

Pupils: children who are learning in both nursery and primary levels of education.

Primary school: educational institution for children between the ages of 5 – 11 years.

Demonstration method refers to the type of teaching method in which the teacher is the principal actor while the learners watch with the intention to act later.



Based on findings of the study, it was concluded that:

  • Discussion methods on role-play method are effective teaching method that should be adopted by primary school teachers in teaching effectively.
  • Proper usage of teaching method enhances effective teaching and learning.
  • Appropriate teaching method helps pupils to achieve greatly during instructional session.


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Peter Hezekiah

I am Peter Hezekiah, a Nigerian. A graduate of Economics/Education. I'm the Editor in (A online company that deals with writing of final year project and provision of project materials of any topic to final year project students). My personal email is My personal number; +2347068634102

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