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Dear, Respondent

I am a final year student from school of Health Technology Etinan, Department of Environment Health undertaking a research project, in partial fulfillment of the course requirement and for the award of Technician Diploma.

Please you are requested to tick () the boxed option from the structured question. This questionnaire is in two sections. Section A is personal data and section B is the main question. Tick the best of your mine please does not write your name.

Yours faithfully.




1.0  Background to the Study

Indeed, the word “waste” is frequent in human existence. That is to say, wherever man is, wastes must be produced as bi-products of his activities. Man’s activities include domestic, agricultural, commercial, institutional i.e. creational and industrial.

Moreover, according to the World Health Organization Expert Committee (1992), they defined wastes as all the useless unwanted or discarded matter resulting from normal community activities.


Obviously, solid wastes resulting from households (garbage) and from industrial and commercial production constitutes the greatest environmental threat to the urban population.

Moreover, Uchebu (1998), classified solid wastes into garbage and rubbish. Garbage  being the putrefied wastes from food such as meat, fish, fruits, vegetable. While, rubbish are non-putricible waste that are either combustible or non-combustible. Such as paper, carton, wood, clothes, polythene, iron, glasses, ceramic, etc.


Furthermore, Nigerian Public Work Association (NPWA). Thus, categorized waste into two major groups which are the combustible item. Such as carton, boxes, paper, grass, combustibles articles. Such as cans, ashes, metal, furniture, glass, bath tubes, stones etc.

The two broad grouping are, where they are generated. Thus, garbage, putricible wastes is as a result of grouping, handling, preparation, cooking and consumption of food. This type attracts and breeds vermin and emits odours. Rubbish consists of all non-putricible wastes except ashes.


Along side this sub-division are street sweepings, bulky waste, ashes, municipal wastes, hospital waste, agricultural wastes, demolition construction waste and industrial waste.


Effects of these wastes (solid waste) apart from the health implications. Improper solid wastes disposal creates as aesthetic nuisance and often lead to environmental degradation and imbalance. It cause concern to public health in the sense that the dumping of waste on lands.


Indiscriminate disposal of wastes into river and other surface water or into the air can cause pollution and destruction of rivers.

Solid waste if not properly disposed off, and managed can cause problem to public health from the fact that rates, insects. Also, other vermin that are found at the collection storage points and at disposal sites, carry with them many diseases. These diseases include: fly borne diseases such as typhoid fever, cholera, dysentery, diarrhoea, yaws, onchocerciasis, salmonelosis etc.


Others are plague, rat bite fever, relapsing fever etc. More so, the emission of obnoxious odour. Pollution of lands, water and air can even lead to death. (Oreyomi, 2009).


Research findings indicate, burying controlled, tipping, sanitary landfill, hog feeding, compositing, incineration, and pulverization to be method of proper disposal of solid wastes. Since the improper solid waste disposal and its effect on health in Oron Local Government Urban area is unknown.

The researcher deemed it necessary to carry out the study on improper solid wastes disposal and its effects. So as to identify the characteristics of improper solid wastes in this area of the state. Verify the relationship between the people’s health and improper solid wastes disposal, determine the method of waste disposal in Oron Urban.


Also, identify the appropriate strategies to combat the hazards associated with or posed on the people as a result of improper solid wastes disposal.

Above all, the work will be useful to public health workers and town planners etc. Thus, in putting appropriate measures as regards wastes disposal. Also, it will serve as reviewed paper of another researcher who is in this field of study. The disposal of waste is a very important part of all who engaged in environmental sanitation.


1.1   Statement of the Problem

In the solid waste management plan of Oron city, the Local Government has identified the rehabilitation of former open dumpsite as one of its priority programmes.

In recent time, Oron has been noted to be one of the slumming area with poor sanitary condition in Akwa Ibom State.

This problem has been on the like due to poor wastes management practices coupled with overpopulation. However, open dumping is the common method of waste disposal in most communities.


Therefore, this spelt out the level by which people there are being exposed to the hazardous effects arising from the disposal of solid wastes and the effects of improper management of wastes.

The sources of solid wastes are from municipal, industrial, domestic, agricultural and commercial wastes, in which heaps of solid wastes are among the most pertinent features in communities including Oron Urban.

Hence, this study therefore sets out to find the effects of improper solid wastes disposal on health in Oron Urban. In other words, what are the defects of improper solid waste disposal in Oron Urban residents?


1.2   Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study is to identify the factors responsible for the improper solid wastes disposal in Oron Urban area and to determine possible solutions that will be used in the reduction of all the associated health effects within in study area.


1.3   Significance of the Study

This study would be of great importance to the residents of Urban Area. Thus, it will help them to have knowledge of the improper solid wastes disposal and its effects on health.

It will further help them to know the disease associated with improper and indiscriminate disposal of solid wastes. Such as dysentery, cholera, malaria, typhoid fever, diarrhoea, yaw and onchocerciasis and ways to control them.


1.5   Limitation of the Study

The limitation encountered in the course of this study were financial constraints, time factor, and the respondents resentment in giving information for the fear of the unknown, fear of taxation and lack of access to research area.


1.6   Objectives of the Study

  • To identify the method of solid wastes disposal on health.
  • To examine the effects of poor disposal of solid wastes on man and the environment.
  • To determine with positive solution to the problem associated with improper solid wastes disposal in Oron Urban Area.


1.7   Research Hypotheses

(1)    Ha: There is no significance relationship between method of solid waste disposal and health.

Ho: There is a significance relationship between method of solid waste disposal and health.

(2)    Ha: There is no significance relationship between the effect on health and indiscriminate solid wastes disposal.

        Ho: There is a significance relationship between the effect on health and indiscriminate solid wastes disposal.

(3)    Ha: There is no significance relationship between proper disposal of wastes and reduction of negative effect on human health and environment.

Ho: There is a significance relationship between proper disposal of wastes and reduction of negative effect on human health and environment.


1.8   Operational Definition of Terms

Effect: In brief, effect is a change or changed state occurring as a direct result of action by somebody or something else.

Improper: not appropriate to the context, the nature of the case, or the purpose in view.

Wastes: Waste refers to useless, unwanted or thrown away materials which cause nuisance to health and environment as a whole. This may be solid, liquid or gaseous in nature.

Solid Wastes: In the light of the study, solid wastes are materials that are no longer have value to Oron Urban residents.

Rubbish: This comprises of all non-putricible combustible and non-combustible materials varying from tiny pieces of papers, cans, scraps, metals. Glass and cardboards to abandoned motor vehicles.


Hazard: Hazard means risks, a substance or condition which is risky to life or injurious to health or anything or condition which causes ill-health, discomfort or death.

Refuse Storage Container: This refer to approved designated metal bin used for the storage of refuse in a community before the permanent dumping site.



The conclusion draw the research work revealed that effect of improper solid waste disposal on health in Oron Urban area. The study conclude there is a correlation between sources of wastes disposal, it is confirm that solid waste result in various effect on health. Also that the adoption of control measure will help to reduce the effect on health when strictly enforced.

Therefore, there is need to create awareness through education on the effect of improper solid waste disposal on health the government, community should adhere to the control measures  so as to prolong life expectancy.


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Joselyn Nya

My Name is Joselyn Nya A Publisher in Project Boss Team. I'm a Nigerian I'm a graduate/Educational Researcher. Project Boss Team. We are the best for Project materials and project writing services. Email:

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