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1.1     Background to the Study

Flipped classroom is an unconventional model in which students gain first-exposure learning prior to class and focus on the processing part of learning such as synthesizing, analyzing, problem-solving in class. The flipped classroom is a hybrid approach that combines online learning with face-to-face classroom activities (Graham, Woodfield, & Harrsison, 2013). It inverts the traditional instruction strategy.


Before the class, the teacher provides videos or other resources and the students choose a suitable time and place to learn based on their personal learning rhythm; in the class, the students participate in collaborative and interactive learning activities to make good use of the class time (Bergmann & Sams, 2012; Fulton, 2012; Mok, 2014).

With the development of digital resources, particularly the open online instructional videos created by Khan Academy and the massive open online courses (MOOC), the flipped classroom has become increasingly popular in modern education (Sun,

Xie, & Anderman, 2018). In line with this, this study aims to investigate whether flipped classrooms can promote students’ learning performance in different subject areas and learning stages. Also, whether students’ academic performance in flipped classrooms has different effects due to the different types of knowledge taught.

Flipped classrooms allow students to achieve better outcomes in the class with less brain power or cognitive input (Clark, Nguyen, & Sweller, 2006; Jensen, Kummer, & Godoy, 2006; Mattis & Kristina, 2015). Zainuddin, Haruna, Li, Zhang, and Chu (2019) divided the impact of the flipped classroom implementation into learning achievement, learning motivation or learning engagement, self-efficacy and social interaction.


Instead of using face-to-face classroom time mainly to inform, communicate and generate awareness, the flipped instructor will generally move this type of activity to an asynchronous environment. For instance, if the information is available online or offline on the DVD. Students may read and refer to it as often as needed in order to recognise and recall it later. Procedural instruction that changes very little with time is also appropriate for the asynchronous environment. This type of instruction leads to near transfer (Clark, 2013).

The information or experience can be documented, simulated, and explained in a way that stays relatively consistent over time.

A variety of technologies may be helpful in this move. For example, an instructor may link to a YouTube video demonstration from Khan Academy or other sites of such that shows how to solve a mathematical problem or how to use a particular piece of mathematical equipment. Students can follow along with the video and practice on their own.



A lot of learning approaches based on students-centered learning supported flipped classroom. Prince (2014) defined active learning broadly as, any instructional method that engages students in the learning process. This definition is itself broad enough to include many traditional classroom activities such as lectures (provided students are reflecting, taking notes, or asking questions).

Thus, active learning acts as a superset for both peer-assisted and problem-based learning approaches. Prince also clarifies the relationship between these two, indicating that problem-based learning is, always active and usually (but not necessarily) collaborative or cooperative as illustrated in Figure 1. The theoretical foundations used for justifying the flipped classroom typically focus on reasons for not using classroom time to deliver lectures. These stem from a large body of literature on student-centered learning, which looks primarily to the theory of Piaget (1967) and Vygotsky (1978).

Tudge and Winterhoff (2013) provided a detailed analysis of the similarities and differences between these two theories. Foot and Howe (2010) provided the background outlining connections The Flipped Classroom: Its Effects on Students’ Performance and Retention in Secondary School Government Classroom leading to peer-assisted learning. In particular, they pointed out that constructivism and collaborative learning stem from Piaget’s theory of cognitive conflict, and that cooperative learning stems from Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development.

Obviously, the classroom component is critical, and the student-centred learning theories just presented provide the philosophical basis for the design of these activities. Unintentionally, some may overlook this fact and instead conceptualize the flipped classroom based only on the presence (or absence) of computer technology such as video lectures. This would be a mistake, since the pedagogical theory used to design the in-class experience may ultimately be the determining factor in the success (or failure) of the flipped classroom.

The concept of flipped classroom began about 15 years ago with the occasional marriage of computer technology and a few technologically advanced educators, including Baker (2010) who’s description of the classroom teacher evolving into the guide on the side instead of the sage on the stage.

Salman Khan, the Khan Academy originator in 2006 attempted to provide tutoring to his younger relatives online at a distance. He developed videos for them, which he uploaded for them to watch on their own. These videos became so significant in number, that he began to catalogue them, and eventually developed a website named Khan Academy.


The teacher substitutes in-class instruction with at home video instruction and utilizes class time for homework assignments and other project-based learning activities. This is one of the features FC possesses that make it distinct from other methods of teaching like videoconferencing, computer-based teaching (CBT), mobile-learning and so on that do not require direct class interactive session.

Little wonder, the recorded videos on subjects/topics for primary/secondary school students on Compact Disc/Digital Video Disc (CD/DVD) that are selling all over the places in Nigeria are only going to assist few students because no feedback and nobody is available to assess students’ understanding and explain the difficult concepts of the topics/lessons recorded.


The students were not opportune to have one-on-one interaction with their teachers; hence, students’ contribution will not be possible. As a result, subjects like Government, English language and so on cannot understand effectively with this approach (Olorundare, 2011).

Despite the importance of Government to every individual, students’ interest and performance have always been of concern to stakeholders. Usman (2012) noted that in everywhere people go, everything people do or propose to do, the structure of Government or its applications play a vital role, and therefore most countries, races, and peoples put emphasis in all aspects of studying, developing and applying. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of flipped classroom on student academic performance.


1.2     Statement of the Problem

Due to poor teaching methods (WAEC, 2016), students’ prior Government experiences and attitudes towards Government (Tulis & Ainley, 2011), students’ lack of interest in, poor learning environment and motivation to learn Government (Aborisade, 2009), and prerequisite deficiencies (Hull & Seeley, 2010), research has indicated that Government students are not learning the concepts necessary for competence.

If this trend continues, Nigerian students may not be able to efficiently compete in the universal economy (Ale & Lawal, 2012). To address this issue, this study sought to examine the effect of the developed flipped classroom package on senior secondary school Government students’ performance and retention using researcher developed flipped classroom package using DVD to determine: (a) whether flipped classroom will help to improve students’ post-test performance in Government, (b) whether the performance of students in this subject (Government) is based on gender?


1.3     Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study was to examine the effect of flipped classroom on government student academic performance in Southern Ijaw Local Government Area.

Specifically, this study aimed to:

  1. Examine the effect of flipped classroom on student academic performance.
  2. Examine the effect of flipped classroom on student attitude towards learning.


1.4     Significance of the Study

The findings of the study will be of importance to Government teachers, students, parents, curriculum planners and future researchers.

(i)       The findings will be beneficial to Government teachers because it will provide them with effective method of teaching which they will incorporate in their day to day classroom instruction in order to promote learning. The findings will offer teachers ample time for classroom activities.

(ii)      The finding of this study will be beneficial to students because it will expose them to flipped classroom instruction. Which will enable them develop skills in oral communication, self-efficacy, social and group skills necessary for success outside the classroom. Also, increase in their retention ability, a good study habit and enhance creativity.

(iii)     The findings of the study will help to activate students’ interest in the learning of Government as well as make them have supportive and committed relationships. It will enable students appreciate the need for their involvement in collaborative learning activities within and outside the classroom. Which will improve their performance and enable them to make better grades in chemistry at a sitting. This will equally remove financial burdens on parents.


(iv)     The findings of this study will equally be beneficial to curriculum planners and administrators. It will enable them include in their list of activity-based instructions and recommend such teaching method to Government teachers and plan in-service training regarding the use of such method.

(v)      Parents’ assistance to their children in carrying out the assigned work at home. Thus, will save them the trouble of their children engaging in irrelevances outside the classroom/school environment. Students crediting Government at a sitting as a result of effect of flipped classroom will make parents happy, proud and at the same time remove the burden of paying school fees a second time.


1.5     Research Questions

The following research questions were set to guide the study:

  1. Does flipped classroom have an effect on the students’ achievement in their overall legal English proficiency?
  2. What are the students’ attitude towards flipped classroom?


1.6 Limitation of the Study

Some of the challenges encountered while conducting the research include lack of sufficient funds and short duration assigned for the study.


Operation Definitions of Terms:

The following concepts are defined as they are applied in the study.

Flipped classroom: Flipped classroom can be defined as an approach to teaching in which course materials are introduced outside of class, and in-class time is re-purposed for inquiry, application, and assessment in order to better meet the needs of individual learners.

Secondary School: this refers to school which provide secondary education between age 11 and 16 or 11 and 19 after primary and before higher education.

Academic performance: This is used in the study to refer to student’s attitude to competition for excellence in their attitude towards participating in class activities and homework. Also, it can be defined as the scores of students in examination, test, assignment, quiz etc.


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Joselyn Nya

My Name is Joselyn Nya A Publisher in Project Boss Team. I'm a Nigerian I'm a graduate/Educational Researcher. Project Boss Team. We are the best for Project materials and project writing services. Email:

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