EFFECT JIGSAW CO-OPERATIVE AND VIDEOS CLIPS TEACHING STRATEGIES ON THE STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN PHYSICS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

EFFECT JIGSAW CO-OPERATIVE AND VIDEOS CLIPS TEACHING STRATEGIES ON THE STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN PHYSICS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS
EFFECT JIGSAW CO-OPERATIVE AND VIDEOS CLIPS TEACHING STRATEGIES ON THE STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN PHYSICS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

EFFECT JIGSAW CO-OPERATIVE AND VIDEOS CLIPS TEACHING STRATEGIES ON THE STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN PHYSICS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

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CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study

Physics is among the three major pillars of science (i.e. Physics, chemistry and Biology). Physics is a branch of science that deals with the structure of matter and the interactions between the fundamental constituents of the observable universe (Aiyelabegan, 2013).

 

In the broadest sense, Akanbi, (2013) asserted that physics is coined from the Greek physikos which is concerned with all aspects of nature on both the macroscopic and submicroscopic levels. Its scope of study encompasses not only the behaviour of objects under the action of given forces. But also the nature and origin of gravitational, electromagnetic, and nuclear force fields. Its ultimate objective is the formulation of a few comprehensive principles that bring together and explain all such disparate phenomena.

 

In the words of Olarinoye (2010) “Physics is the most utilized basic science subject in most technology and technology- related profession”. This merely indicates that the enormous role Physics plays in the technological growth of any nation must not be undermined. It is germane to say that the technological growth of a nation leads to its social and economic development.

 

EFFECT JIGSAW CO-OPERATIVE AND VIDEOS CLIPS TEACHING STRATEGIES ON THE STUDENTS’ ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN PHYSICS IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

The importance of Physics for the development of a nation is, therefore, glaring. Indeed, the knowledge of Physics has led to so many inventions such as the production, application and utilization of integrated circuits, production and use of machines and other contrivances.

It also accounts for the discovery and production of hydroelectric power, gas turbine and thermonuclear power plant, telephones, refrigerators, heaters and cookers. The invention of modern technologies such as Information and Communication Technology (ICT) which has made the world a global village is also part of the benefits of Physics and many other benefits.

 

The principles of radiation used in modern medicine for diagnosis and treatment. The production and use of so many appliances such as electronic gadgets and computers, surgical and astronomical instruments are all traceable to the study of Physics (Ogunleye and Fasakin, 2011).

The Federal Ministry of Education (FME, 2008) regards Physics as a crucial subject for effective living in the modern age of science and technology. This means that it is necessary that every student is given an opportunity to acquire some physics concepts, theory, principles and skills.

These concepts, theory, principles and skills are clearly explained in the objectives of physics education enshrined in the new Senior Secondary School Physics Curriculum.

 

According to the National Policy on Education (Federal Government of Nigeria 2013), the Objectives of Physics to students in the secondary level of education are to: provide basic literacy in physics for functional living in the society; acquire basic concepts and principles of physics as a preparation for further studies; acquire essential scientific skills and attitudes as a preparation for technological application of physics; and stimulate and enhance creativity.

 

Uyuota (2016) rightly cautioned that poor performance in physics at secondary level has spill-over effects on tertiary level physics. Further, Olusunde and Olaleye (2017) described poor performance as a loss in a country’s financial investment. Poor performance in physics is also evident among Akwa Ibom State senior secondary school students. The implication of here is that the highest percentage of Akwa Ibom State students that qualified for admission into science and technical courses in Nigerian universities is low. This is because of lack of credit pass in physics. This is quite alarming.

 

Empirical evidences (Azuka, 2019; Adewumi, 2017) have indicated that traditional lecture method still remains popular among secondary school physics teachers. In the traditional method, the teacher dominates the class with little opportunity for students to participate. The effect jigsaw co-operative and videos clips teaching strategies on the students’ academic achievement in physics in secondary schools.

Nichols (2018), opined that one of the current major concerns is about how to improve instructional strategies in order to assist students successfully progress from practical physics to deductive physics. One of these improved and innovative strategies is the jig saw co-operative and video clips teaching strategies.

Agommuoh and Nzewi, (2013) reported that video-taped instruction has the qualities of providing a semi-permanent, complete and audio’s visual record of event.

 

Using instructional videos in teaching is not new. They date back to prehistoric times when cave instructors used 16mm projectors to show cave students examples of insurance company marketing commercials in business courses (Berk, 2019).

Instructional Video as a change instrument in the classroom has undertaken a unique cycle of adoption over time. Broadcast television and film were first used sparingly, primarily as out-of-the classroom forms of enrichment (Greenberg, 2012).

 

Instructional video is of great effect in education. They have the capacity to stir emotions, stimulate viewers, and alter attitudes.

Illustrations, sounds, and words have the power to seize attention, to simplify concepts, to help to overcome physical difficulties and restrictions of space, size and time. Moreover, use of Instructional video in teaching and learning can accommodate for the students’ preferences.

Use of a combination of modern educational technology, such as a computer, video, and hypertext with its feature of combining text, graphic art, sound, and. animation, as teaching tools in many educational institutions, marked a new era. The high level of interaction which computer-based teaching provides is the key to its value.

 

The benefits of instructional video as an important tool in teaching and learning of wide range of topics in social studies could enable students understand and learn the subject better.

Instructors and even students rely or use educative videos to learn, compare and understand concepts. Videotape recorders can be used in a number of different ways to enhance teaching and learning in both large groups and small groups.

 

Combination of video and Jigsaw cooperative teaching strategies is of great importance as the video is effective for more than simply showing dynamic processes. Video itself is a tool for learning that when properly applied obtains extensive benefits. It’s also a medium for collaboration, and a language unto itself that is of universal appeal (Kareem, 2013).

 

The American Public Broadcasting System’s (PBS) annual teacher survey on media and technology, the percentages of teachers finding value in multimedia and video content has increased each year since 2007. Result for 2010 shows that 68 percent believe that video content stimulates discussions. 66 percent believe video increases student motivation. 61 percent believe video is preferred by students. 42 percent believe video directly increases student achievement (Greenberg, 2012). Generally, it implies that video usage increases and enhances students’ learning.

Hsin and Cigas (2013) used short videos to enhance student satisfaction and motivation for an online introductory course in computer science/physics. They achieved a significantly higher percentage of involved students and their average grades increased.

 

Another method to engage and to motivate students is showing entertainment videos (Steffes & Duverger, 2012). Both previous studies, Bravo et al. (2011) and Steffes and Duverger (2012), emphasize the importance of the proper design of supplementary video content and the methodology of displaying video to students.

The effects of using videos clips and jigsaw teaching strategies are increasing student activity. An important issue is establishing a methodology of embedding video clips in multimedia teaching material in order to improve the learning process (Kay, 2012).

 

Students are also comfortable using written materials. Since these are often quicker and better designed, but the students who preferred written materials also used the recorded video lectures.

Instructional video is a kind of multimedia that can transmit verbal and non-verbal with the combination of Audio and Visual materials. It develops continuity of thought and offers a reality of experience that stimulates self-activities on the part of the students (Nwoji, 2016).

 

In instructional video, teacher produces an instructional video package which is played on a video player connected to a television monitor which is put on, for the learner to view. At interval they may choose to stop playing and explain certain points or factors or probably wait till the end of the lesson. Students have the opportunity to repeat the lesson over and over again (Orisabiyi, 2017). The effect jigsaw co-operative and videos clips teaching strategies on the students’ academic achievement in physics in secondary schools.

Therefore, it can be seen that other strategies need to be evolved and tried in order to realize the much desired improved academic performance and gender parity in physics. In view of this, the present study investigated the influence of Jigsaw co-operative and video clips teaching strategies on students’ academic achievement in physics in secondary schools.

 

1.2       Statement of the Problem

The mass failure recorded by students in physics certificate examinations in secondary schools been a matter of concern to parents, guardians, government and even students themselves. To alleviate the performance of students in the subject, the government has provided free and compulsory education and has provided free textbooks in the subject from senior secondary one to three to enable the students to read and prepare for the examination.

Also, students may not be sufficiently expose to discipline in class during the teaching of physics as some of the instructional strategy. Thus, do not encourage students’ participation during the process of teaching and learning physics.

 

However, this attitude has rendered physics teaching and learning in many of the secondary schools ineffective because students hear when you teach them, they see when you demonstrate and they understand when they practice the concept presented to them.

From the foregoing, there is a strong indication that academic achievements of students in physics are a correlates of teaching method utilized by teachers in the process of instructions.

Therefore, this study investigates effect of Jigsaw co-operative and videos clips teaching strategies on the students’ academic achievement in physics in secondary schools.

 

1.3       Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect Jigsaw co-operative and videos clips teaching strategies on the students’ academic achievement in physics in secondary schools. Specifically, the main objectives of this study are to:

  • Determine the difference between mean achievement scores of students taught using Jigsaw co-operative strategy and those taught using videos clips teaching strategy in physics in secondary schools.
  • Determine the difference between mean achievement scores of male and female students taught using Jigsaw co-operative strategy in physics in secondary schools.
  • Determine the difference between mean achievement scores of male and female students taught using videos clips teaching strategy in physics in secondary schools.

 

1.4       Research Questions    

  • What difference exists between mean achievement scores of students taught using Jigsaw co-operative strategy and those taught using videos clips teaching strategy in physics?
  • What difference exists between mean achievement scores of male and female students taught using Jigsaw co-operative strategy in physics?
  • What difference exists between mean achievement scores of male and female students taught using taught using videos clips teaching strategy in physics?

 

1.5       Research Hypotheses    

  • There is no significant difference between mean achievement scores of students taught using Jigsaw co-operative strategy and those taught using videos clips teaching strategy in physics.
  • There is no significant difference between mean achievement scores of male and female students taught using Jigsaw co-operative strategy in physics.
  • There is no significant difference between mean achievement scores of male and female students taught using videos clips teaching strategy in physics.

 

1.6       Significance of the Study 

The finding of this study would be useful in the following to

Physics Students: The study will hopefully benefit students immensely by reducing the general physics-phobia worrying them, especially at post-basic level of education due to the use of ineffective instructional strategies by physics teachers.

 

Textbook publishers: Also, the study will hopefully benefit textbook developers. By advocating appropriate instructional strategies in teaching physics. Such as jigsaw co-operative and video clips teaching strategies in their subsequent publications for improved teaching and learning of physics at secondary level of education.

Educational administrators: This will help educational planners and administrators as well as professional bodies in physics when it comes to physics teacher professional development.

 

Professional bodies in physics: The findings of this research could serve as a reference material for teachers and professional bodies in physics. Like Nigerian Institute of Physics (NIP) and STAN. To recognize possible gender differences among students in terms of academic performance in Physics. Thus, and how plan how to popularize the subject among all the students. To minimize gender differences by application and support towards implementation of jigsaw co-operative and video clips teaching strategies.

 

Parents: The study could help provide strong empirical basis for improvement and modification of the methods of teaching Physics which could lead to improved academic performance among students. Such improvements and modifications will also make parents to be happy to see their children passing physics for their future educational progress.

Fellow researchers: It is hoped that the findings of the study will stimulate and promote further researches. Fellow researchers in physics education will find the results worthy of discussion and dissemination to stimulate and promote further researches. In addition to that, fellow researchers will also benefit from the study. By providing them with recent literature materials that will guide them in carrying out further researches in physics education.

 

Definition of Terms 

Jigsaw Cooperative Teaching Strategy: Jigsaw is a cooperative learning strategy that enables each student of a “home” group to specialize in one aspect of a topic.

Academic Achievement: This is the scores of students obtain in a Physics Achievement Test (PAT).

Lecture Method: This is an instructional strategy which involves verbal presentation of ideas, concepts, generalizations and facts. In this strategy the teacher talks most of the time while the students remain passive and receive the information impacted on them.

Gender: This refers to male or female students studying physics.

About Peter Hezekiah 177 Articles
I am Peter Hezekiah, a Nigerian. A graduate of Economics/Education. I'm the Editor in projectboss.com.ng (A online company that deals with writing of final year project and provision of project materials of any topic to final year project students). My personal email is lawsonpeter10@gmail.com. My personal number; +2347068634102