Research Proposals

DIFFICULTY IN THE PRONUNCIATION OF PAST FORM

DIFFICULTY IN THE PRONUNCIATION OF PAST FORM OF ‘‘D’’ IN SOME ENGLISH WORDS

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Cover Page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgements

Abstract

Table of Contents

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study

1.2       Statement of the Problem

1.3       Purpose of the Study

1.4       Significance of the Study

1.5       Research Questions

 

1.6       Limitations of the Study

1.7       Delimitation of the Study

1.8       Operational Definition of Terms

 

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODS

3.1       Area of the Study

3.2       Research Design

3.3       Population of the Study

3.4        Sample and Sampling Techniques

 

3.5       Instrument for Data Collection

3.6       Validation of Instrument

3.7       Administration of the Instrument

3.8       Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND DISCUSSION

OF FINDINGS

1.2 Data Analysis

4.2       Discussion of Findings

 

CHAPTER FIVE:   SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS

AND CONCLUSION

5.1       Summary

5.2       Recommendations

5.3       Conclusion

5.4       Suggestion for Further Study

References

Appendix

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

This study is designed to look at causes and difficulty of students’ pronunciation on the past form of ‘‘d’’ in some English words in 200 students of the Department of Social Studies, College of Education, Afaha Nsit. Pronunciation plays an important role in delivering speech. It is the way in which a language is spoken.

Acquiring English as a second language involves not only reading, writing, listening and speaking skills but also pronunciation, which plays a significant role as a sub-skill since it enables effective communication and helps avoid misunderstandings (Gowhary, Azizifar & Rezaei, 2016).

 

DIFFICULTY IN THE PRONUNCIATION OF PAST FORM OF ‘‘D’’ IN SOME ENGLISH WORDS

Dalton and Seidlhofer (2001, p.3) define pronunciation in general term as the production of significant sounds. According to them, sound is significant because it is used as part of a code of a particular language.

Syafei (1988, p.1), pronunciation is a twofold process. He argues “it involves the recognition of sounds as well as the production of sounds.”He adds that “a student is faced with the problem of recognizing and discriminating the sounds as well as the problem of producing the sounds.

Ramelan (1999, p. 5), says that “the difficulty encountered by the student in learning the second language is caused by the different elements found between his language and the target language.”

 

Further he says that “the degree of difficulty in learning is also determined by the degree of difference between the two languages.”The greater the similarity between them, the less difficult it will be for the student to learn the foreign language.

Moreover, Ramelan (1999, p.7),  points out the nature of pronunciation problems in learning a foreign language as follows. The problem is concerned with the identification of the foreign sounds. Learners have to remember their acoustic qualities so that they will be able to directly identify them in an utterance.  Secondly, the problem is concerned with the production of sounds by their speech organs.

In this context, Liang (2015), asserts that poor pronunciation in English reduces the possibility of good oral-auditory interaction. Considering these issues, it is worth mentioning that nowadays there are many technological tools and resources that can help students to overcome pronunciation problems.

One of these problems is Audacity, which assists development of learners’ pronunciation in the target language because it is very practical, easy to use, and can be employed for various purposes in different educational fields (Gómez, 2010).

 

In the same vein, Roach (2000), writes that poor pronunciation by a speaker cause difficulty to understand by the listener, despite accuracy in other areas of the language.

From the above opinion as examined by the authors, it is obvious that pronunciation plays an important role in learning a foreign language.

 

The most common difficulty in pronunciation resides in the past tense of regular verbs. This may occur for different factors. For instance, students find English as a challenging course. This mindset discourages them from making an effort to learn it, where the achievement of language proficiency turns difficult. In addition, some teachers do not master the target language enough, especially its pronunciation.

As a result, they do not have the capacity to correct their students properly. Another very important factor that leads to the difficulty in pronunciation of the past forms of some English such as,   /-ed/, /t/, /d/, is the differences from the mother tongue.

It is on the above explanations that this research work  seeks to investigate students’ difficulty in the pronunciation of past form of ‘‘d’’ in some English words among level 200 students of the Department of Social Studies, College of Education, Afaha Nsit.

 

1.2 Statement of the Problem

It is obvious that, 200 level students of the Department of Social Studies, College of Education, Afaha Nsit show lack of constant care to learn new lexes along with their meanings, grammar and neglect their proper pronunciation. These learners have nebulous concept about the standard pronunciation of the past form of ‘‘d’’ to ‘‘t’’. They lack the knowledge of what the past form of ‘‘d’’ in English entails. Also, the past tense and past participle by the addition of –d or –ed to the verb as well as adding ‘ING’ to the base forms Present Participle impose a problem to them.

On the other hand, the indication of the past is the voiced “d” sound when the verb ends in a voiced consonant. Verb past tense pronunciation /d/ love loved, try tried rain rained.

 

Due to this act, the lecturers are sad that these students mispronounced and abused  it because of their common held belief that every single regular past tense verb end in ‘/id/’ is pronounced as ‘d’ sound and remained utterly unaware of the other two scenarios. Mispronunciation of the past for of ‘d’ have causes a serious problems with fluency as it leads to ineffective communication.

Many teachers have expressed their dissatisfaction of the learners’ poor pronunciation of the past form of ‘‘d’’ in some English words not knowing that if the verb ends in any other sound, the past simple ending is pronounced /d/. Therefore, this research seeks to examine some remedies on students’ difficulty in the pronunciation of past form of ‘‘d’’ in some English words among level 200 students of the department .

 

1.3       Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study is to investigate students’ difficulty in the pronunciation of past form of ‘‘d’’ in some English words among level 200 students of the Department of Social Studies, College of Education, Afaha Nsit.

This study aims at:

  • identifying students’ difficulties in pronouncing the past form of ‘‘d’’ in some English words;
  • analyzing the causes of students’ difficulties in pronouncing the past form of ‘‘d’’ in some English words.

 

1.4       Research Questions

The study seeks to provide answers to the following research questions:

  • what difficulty do students’ have in pronouncing the past form of ‘‘d’’ in some English words?
  • What are the causes of students’ difficulties in pronouncing the past form of ‘‘d’’ in some English words?

 

1.5 Significance of the Study

The findings of this work will be significant in the following ways:

  • Firstly, students will distinguish between ‘t’ and ‘d’ sounds at the end of regular verbs;
  • Secondly, students will not be confused of ‘d’ with ‘t’ sounds in the pronunciation;
  • Thirdly, the findings in this study will help the students to correct their mistakes and concentrate on the pronunciation of English past form of ‘‘d’’ correctly. It will also help the students practice more on pronunciation teaching on English words morphemes (nouns, verbs present and past).
  • It will help the teachers/lecturers to identify the areas of difficulty among the students in the pronunciation of English past form of ‘‘d’’, especially the verb form.
  • Lastly, it will aid the curriculum developers to design a curriculum with reference to all the difficulty among students in the pronunciation of English past form of ‘‘d’’ to enhance their learning and speaking performance.

 

Limitation of the Study

Several problems were encountered during the course of this study which includes:

Time given for the completion of this work was not enough for a wider and more in-depth study due to one semester period.

 

Definition of Terms

The following definition of terms includes:

Pronunciation: In brief, pronunciation may be defined as the way in which a word or a language is spoken.

English Words:  English words may be defined as those words that have meaning in the English language in a real word situation.  Examples, able, above, across, act, actor, active, add, afraid, age, agree etc.

 

Conclusion

Based on the findings of this study, there are significant insights into students’ pronunciation accuracy for English words with different sounds. While the majority of students demonstrated accurate pronunciation for /t/ words like “Waited” (76%) and /d/ words like “Called” (80%), lower accuracy was observed for /ɪd/ words like “Needed” (20%). Therefore, these results underscore the diverse levels of pronunciation proficiency among students and emphasize potential areas for enhancing English language pronunciation skills.

Additionally, the study identified multiple factors contributing to students’ difficulties in pronouncing the past form of the ‘‘d’’ sound in specific English words, such as mother tongue interference, poor learning environment, lack of adequate English textbooks, application of second language rules, and ignorance of rule restrictions. Therefore, these findings shed light on the complex dynamics influencing students’ pronunciation challenges.

 

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