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Title page







Table of Content


1.0     Introduction

1.1     Purpose of the Study

1.2     Objectives of the Study

1.3     Limitation of the Study

1.4     Definition of Terms



2.1     Historical Background of the Project

2.2     Review of Parts of Radio Transmitter-

2.3    Review of FM Broadcast Bands


2.4     Modulation and Demodulation

2.5     Pre-emphasis and De-emphasis

2.6     Review of Modulation Characteristics

2.7     Review of Factors that Hinders Communication Channel

2.8     Review of Radio Frequency Spectrum



3.0     Method/Design Procedure

3.1     Block Diagram of the Design

3.1.2  Electric Microphone

3.1.3  Pre-Amplifier Circuit

3.1.3 The Tank Oscillator Circuit

3.2     Circuit diagram of the Work

3.3     Circuit Part


3.4     Circuit Operation

3.5     Description of Component Used

3.5.1  NPN Transistor

3.5.2  Resistors

3.5.3  Capacitor

3.5.4  Inductor

3.5.5  Microphones



4.0     Implementation and Testing of the Design

4.1     Construction of the Hardware Part

4.1.1  Hardware Package

4.1.2  Component Mounting

4.2     Testing Result


4.2.1  Short Circuit Test

4.2.2  Polarity Test

4.2.3  Testing and System Operation

4.3     Cost of Work



5.1     Conclusion

5.2     Recommendations





1.0     Introduction

The world has developed to an era of information when electronics communication systems influence most of human activities. Moreover, these electronics communication systems consists of three major aspects; the receiver, the channel and the source, which is the transmitter.

According to Pintu and Md Ashikul (2023), a transmitter is an electronics device, which, with the aid of an antenna, propagates an electromagnetic signal such as radio, television or other telecommunications. However, in the previous years, signal energy was generated in transmitting plants using arcs or mechanical alternators.

Presently, a transmitter usually has a power supply, an oscillator, a modulator and amplifiers for audio frequency (AF), intermediate frequency (IF) and radio frequency (RF).



In electronics and telecommunications a transmitter or radio transmitter is an electronic device which, with the aid of an antenna produces ratio waves. The transmitter itself generates a radio frequency; alternating current (AC), which is applied to the antenna when excited by this alternating current, the antenna radiates radio waves.

In addition to their use in broadcasting, transmitters are necessary component parts of many electronic devices that communicate by radio such as cell phones, wireless computer networks, Bluetooth, enables devices, garages door openers, two-way radios in aircraft, ships, and spacecraft, radar sets, and navigational beacons.


A transmitter can be a separate piece of electronic equipment, or an electrical circuit within another electronic device. Specifically, transmitter and receiver combined in one unit called a transceiver. The term transmitter is often abbreviated “XMTR” or “TX” in technical documents. The information is provided to the transmitter in the form of an electronic signal such as an audio (sound) signal from a microphone.

In more powerful transmitters, the antenna may be located on top of a building or on a separates tower, and connected to the transmitter by a feed line, that is a transmission line. The design and construction of fm transmitter.

In addition, according to Adegbenro, Olusoji, Godwin, Ode (2023) communication is the system of exchanging information in form of voice, images, writings, video and the likes, over a space from one place to another.

The information exchanged is termed signal during the transmission procedure. Through this process, humans have expressed their feelings, thoughts and ideas to one another. It is therefore a way for people to understand and convey messages through medium space. This study aimed to design and construction of fm transmitter.


1.1     Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this work is:

  1. To construct a device that will allow music or other audio content from a portable media player, CD player or other portable audio system to be played through a nearly FM radio. It can either be a capability built into a portable media player, or a portable appliance that plugs into the headphone jack or proprietary output port of a portable media player or video device. The sound is then broadcast through the transmitter on an FM broadcast band frequency and picked up by the receiver
  2. The purpose is generally to allow portable audio devices to make use of the better sound quality of a home audio system or car stereo without requiring a wired connection between them. The FM transmitter plugs into the audio output of audio devices and converts the audio output into an FM radio signal, which can then be picked up by appliances such as car or portable radios.


1.2     Objectives of the Study

The objective of this work is to design and construct an FM transmitter which transmits a frequency modulated signal to an FM Radio. That is to construct a device that can broadcast signals on an FM broadcast band and picked up by the receiver.

Also it main objective is to create or construct and FM transmitter which transmits it redundancy a signal or sound to an FM receiver without the need for cables.


1.3     Limitation of the Study

  • The relatively low power output of FM transmitters sometimes makes it unsuitable for use in some large urban areas because of the number of other radio signals.
  • Some models which connects via ports other than the headphone jack have no means of controlling the volume which can force the sound to transmit out from the device harshly (causing over modulation), or too low. In theory a devices could use an automatic level control or audio limiter circuit to overcome this problem although there are few (if any) devices with such a facility available out on the market yet.


1.4     Definition of Terms

Antenna: The physical devices used for sending/receiving radio waves

Bandwidth: Bandwidth is used to measure the data throughput of a channel or connection. It’s the amount of data that can be sent over a connection in a given amount of time without distortion, it should not be confused with band.

Band: A specific ranges of frequencies (for example those between 1850MHz and 1995MHz) are called a band.

Hz (Hertz):  A unit of frequency measurement equal to one cycle per second.

FM Transmitter: It a device that allows a phone to broadcast music stored in its memory on FM frequencies, so that it can be turned into nearby FM receiver such as a car radio.


Baseband: Is a signal that has a very narrow frequency range.

Multiplexing: Is a method by which multiple analog massage signal or digital data streams are combined into one signal over a shared medium.

Frequency: It is the number of complete cycles per second in alternating current direction.

Broadcasting: broadcast or broadcasting is the distribution of audio and/or video content to a dispersed audience via any electronic mass communications medium.

Modulation: It is the addition of information to an electronic or optical carrier signal.

Carrier Signal: it is one with a steady waveform.



An FM transmitter is a portable device, which converts a specific audio output into an FM radio signal. It can be plugged into a CD player, satellite radio system, headphone jack, or a portable media player. One common use of this type of speakers of a car. The majority of FM transmitters have a range of about 30 feet (about 9 meters).

A good radio can increase that range to upwards of 75 feet (about 23 meters). Due to its low output, sometimes these transmitters are not suitable for use in large urban areas, as the frequencies they use may become interrupted with other radio signals.

Thus, this situation can be aggravated by strong FM signals that bleed into surrounding frequencies which the transmitter uses. The FM transmitter has many helpful applications.


It has for example, made it possible to take any type of audio from a computer including music or online debates, and transmits it to an FM radio. The FM radio, basically serves as alternative speakers. One benefit of this is that it removes the hassle of the listener from having to stay chained to a desktop PC to listen to internet radio. The design and construction of fm transmitter.

A digital FM transmitter helps to connect an MP3 player with a car or a home stereo system through its radio receiver. It physically connects to the MP3 player and then broadcasts a short FM transmission of the songs playing on the MP3 player. Once it is plugged into MP3 player, the transmission frequency on the FM transmitter is set to a FM station that is not used in that area. The design and construction of fm transmitter.

The FM receiver is then tuned to the FM transmission station and the music on the MP3 player can be heard via car or homes stereo speakers for those using an FM transmitter in a car, they typically work within a 50 feet (about 15 meters) range. A car traveling behind one with a transmitter can have its radio set to the same station and listen to the same transmission.


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Ikemesit Akpan is my name. I am a Nigerian author. I work with I'm a researcher and a writer of academic research.

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