Research Proposals

COMPARISON OF THE UTILIZATION OF MODELS AND REALIA RESOURCES AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS

COMPARISON OF THE UTILIZATION OF MODELS AND REALIA RESOURCES AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

CERTIFICATION

DEDICATION

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

ABSTRACT

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the study

1.2 Statement of the problem

4 1.3 Purpose of the study

1.4 Research Hypotheses

1.5 Significance of the study

1.6 Delimitation of the Study

1.7 Limitation of the Study

1.8 Operational Definition of Terms

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

2.1 Conceptual Framework of Instructional Materials

2.2 Concept of Model Resources Utilization and Academics Performance of Students

2.3 Concept of Realia Resources And Academics Performance Of      Students

2.4 Gender Differences And Academics Performance

2.5 Summary Of the Review Of Related Literature

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1  Area of the Study

3.2 Research Design

3.3 Population of the Study

3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique

3.5 Instrumentation

3.6 Validation of Instrument

3.7 Administration of Instrument

3.8 scoring of  Instrument

3.9 Method of Data Analysis

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA PRESENTATION AND

DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

4.1 Data presentation

4.2    Discussion of Findings

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS

 AND   CONCLUSION 

5.1 Summary

5.2 Conclusions

5.3    Recommendations

5.4    Suggestion for further studies

References

 

Abstract

This study was designed to examine the comparism of the utilization of models and realia resources and academic performance of students in Ikono Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. A quasi-experimental design was employed in carrying out the study. The population of the study consisted of all SS2 science students offering Biology. A simple random sampling technique was used in the selection of schools and the Three hundred (300) Biology students for the study. Thereafter, Biology Achievement Test (BAT) was the major instrument used for data collection. The data generated from the instrument were analyzed using independent t-test statistics.

Therefore, the result from the analysis revealed that there was a significant difference in academic performance between the Biology students taught using models resources and those taught using realia resources.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

 1.1  Background to the Study

In teaching of Biology, learning is more effective and maximized if the learning environment has adequate instructional materials that can assist the learners in their learning process. Indeed, this is acknowledgement of the role of instructional materials in effective teaching and learning process. Learning material here include all the resources which appeal to the senses and which enrich learning, such as graphic resources, non projected still pictures, projected still pictures, motion pictures (models and realia resources).

By way of definition, according to Gbamanja, (2008) and other researchers, they see realia resources as those real objects used by teachers as an instructional material to facilitate learning in a classroom, while models resources are those scaled representation of real material or objects.

 

Meanwhile, these concepts helps in facilitating learning and retention of difficult concept learnt among the biology students in secondary schools.

Similarly, Eshiet (2009) suggested that all the nearest semblance or likeness of an observable objects is the model. Thus, the less abstract the object, the nearer the model is to reality.

In Nigeria educational system, both realia and models are three dimensional materials. However, as postulated by Gbamania (2008) these material or resources are usual instructional materials. Which give same accurate and specific representation of real life specimen or first-hand experience. Nevertheless, realia resources play a crucial role in the life of the learners in many aspects. Meanwhile, it provides first-hand or direct experience for learners. In addition, real specimen such as plants, machines or tools enrich learning of biology and make it ore concrete, authentic and interesting as the learners is made to handle and study these things directly.

 

COMPARISON OF THE UTILIZATION OF MODELS AND REALIA RESOURCES AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS

1.2   Statement of the Problem

         Over the years, media reports indicate that many students have failed to gain admission into university to read medicine, pharmacy and science laboratory in the polytechnic. Because of their abysmal performance in Biology in public examination like WAEC/NECO and the joints tertiary matriculation examination (JTME). In addition, according to Okeke and Ochuba (2012) research studies. Past and present West African Examination Councils Chief examines’ report on students performance in the Senior School Certificate Biology examination over the years indicate a persistent trend of students’ poor performance.

However, Ugodulumia and Dadughua (2010) suggested that among those factors indicated for students’ poor academic performance in Biology are poor knowledge of basic Biology concepts, inadequate exposure, inadequate preparation, poor knowledge of experimental set ups. Therefore, these problems are the reflection of the teacher’s instructional methods. Other factors blamed included failure on the parts of Biology teachers to use instructional materials such as models, realia among others in their lesson delivery.

 

It is therefore pertinent for the researcher to go into critical investigation, because even in the Nigeria Education system specifically in Ikono Local Government Area Akwa Ibom State, the educational standard with reference to Dadughua (2010) has called for a serious concern.

Meanwhile the percentage performance of secondary students scoring in science subject above is very low. However, Awa (2009) observed that the use of models and realia resources as an instructional materials during teaching and learning of Biology can significantly influence the pace at which students learn.

 

1.3   Purpose of the Study

In general terms, the main aim of this study is to investigate into the comparism of the utilization of models and realia resources and academic performance of students in Biology in secondary schools in Ikono Local Government Area.

Specifically, this study intends to:

  1. Compare the difference in academic performance between Biology students who are taught with realia and those who are taught with models among secondary schools in Ikono.
  2. Compare the difference in academic performance between male and female Biology students taught using realia resources among secondary schools in Ikono.

 

1.4   Research Hypotheses

  1. There is no significant difference in academic performance between Biology students who are taught with models and those ones who are taught with realia.
  2. There is no significant difference in academic performance between male and female Biology students taught using realia resources.

 

1.5   Significance of the Study

Finding obtained from this study will be significant in the following ways:

  1. Firstly, provision of Biology teachers with empirical data on which instructional materials can be adopted to facilitate Biology students academic performance.
  2. Also, provision of guidance counselors with empirical data to base their advisory role upon.
  3. Lastly, it will also serve as references manual to future researchers on related topics.

 

1.6  Limitation of the Study

In the course of conducting the study certain factors posed significant obstacle to the success of this project prominent among these factors were:

  1. Financial Constraints: This relied only on the financial contributions of my parents. However, which was hardly sufficient to cater for a research project of this magnitude. In term of finances required to process materials used for this exercise.
  2. Limited time frame: In this case, inadequate time frame affects the success of the study in such a way that one semester allocated by the College authority to complete and submit finding of this research was insufficient to cover a wider area on the topic.

 

1.7   Operational Definition of Terms

Model Resources: In brief, these are those sealed representation of real material or objects in a constructive form or through drawing.

Realia Resources: These are those real materials or objects used by teachers as instructional materials in order to facilitate learning of Biology.

Academic Performance: In brief, this is the level of knowledge or skill attained by students in a given subject usually measured by test score or examination grade obtained by students in the school.

Joselyn Nya

My Name is Joselyn Nya A Publisher in Project Boss Team. I'm a Nigerian I'm a graduate/Educational Researcher. Project Boss Team. We are the best for Project materials and project writing services. Email: admin@projectboss.com.ng

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