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CLASSROOM VARIABLES AND TEACHING OF INTEGRATED SCIENCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

CLASSROOM VARIABLES AND TEACHING OF INTEGRATED SCIENCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

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TABLES OF CONTENTS

 TITLE PAGE

CERTIFICATION

DEDICATION

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

ABSTRACT

TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

 1.1 Background to the Study

1.2 Statement of the problem

1.3 Purpose of the Study

1.4 Significant of the study

 

1.5 Research questions

1.6 Limitation of the study

1.7 Delimitation of the study

1.8 Definition of terms

CHAPTER TWO – REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

CHAPTER THREE – RESEARCH METHOD

3.1    Area of the study

3.2    Research Design

3.3    Population of the study

3.4    Sample and sampling technique

 

3.5    Instrumentation for data collection

3.6    Validation of the instrument

3.7    Administration of the instrument

3.8    Scoring of the instrument

3.9    Method of data analysis

 

CHAPTER FOUR

4.1    Data Analysis

4.2    Discussion of result

 

CHAPTER FIVE – SUMMARY, RECOMMENDATIONS AND CONCLUSION

5.1    Summary

5.2    Recommendations

5.3    Conclusion

5.4    Suggestion for further Study

References

Appendixes

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background to the Study

Education is the activity or process which modifies the behaviour of person from instructive to human behaviour (Taneja, 2013). This definition reveals the innate truth that education aims at discovering aptitudes as well as to progressively prepare man for social activity through which the basic needs (food, shelter and clothing) necessary for human survival can be produced through school system. Indeed, the best legacy which any parent can give to the children is Education.

Moreover, the achievement of goal of the education depends on several factors among which classroom is needed in any strata of education.

A classroom is a learning space, a room in which both children and adult learn about things (Hutchison, 2023) classrooms are found in education institutions of all kinds, from pre-schools to Universities, and may also be found in other places where education or training is provided such as corporations and religious organization. Thus, the classroom attempts to provide a space where learning can take place uninterrupted by outside distractions.

 

CLASSROOM VARIABLES AND TEACHING OF INTEGRATED SCIENCE IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

Furthermore, according to Hussian (2014) most classrooms have a large writing surface where the instructor or students can share notes with others of the class. Traditionally, this was in the form of blackboard but these are becoming large common in well-equipped schools because of new alternative like white-boards and interactive white boards.

Many classrooms also have maps, charts, books, monograph, seats and tables etc. (Hopson, 2022) some classroom s also have or contain multimedia or telecommunication equipments, it may be punished with special equipment (e.g) globes, pianos, map etc) appropriate to a specific area of study.

 

In brief, a classroom can range from small groups of five or six to big classrooms with hundreds of students. A large classroom is also called a lecture hall. A few examples of classrooms are computer labs which are used for ICT lesson in schools, gymnasiums for sport, chemistry, Biology and physics laboratories for science practical. All these are examples of classroom.

 

Furthermore, Woolner (2020) asserted that the lighting and furniture are some factors that always distract student’s attention. In addition, desks should be arranged in columns ad rows, with a teacher’s desk at the front, where he or she would stand and teach the students (Zentall, 2022). Thus, this makes it easier for the teachers to supervise the students’ work and catch any students that may be misbehaving insuring that students stay focused.

However, online learning technology makes it possible for learning to take place at any time, at any place and at any pace that the learners desire. This is important for adult learners who may need to schedule the learning around work and parenting responsibilities.

 

Hopson (2022) said that 25% of employee training hours take place online rather than in the classroom. This is the challenge to the use of classroom. Classroom variables and teaching of integrated science in secondary schools.

A part from classroom facilities mention above, another important variable of classroom is the class size Adeyemi (2014) stated that class size refers to an educational tool that can be used to described the average number of students per a class. Ogunnij (2021) reported that the approve number of class-size for class one to class nine (JS3) is 40 students per class while 35 students per class for senior classes. Okoro (2018) also reported that the class-size in secondary schools range between 35 to 40 students.

 

Therefore, to this end, if the teacher’s-student ratio is at a right proportion (that is 1:40), and the facilities in the classroom are available and properly utilized in the teaching of integrated science, it promotes efficiency of education by improving the quality of teaching and learning of integrated science. As the school population increases, class-size should also increase, the performances of students become an issue.

According to Dior (2015) class size has become a phenomenon often mentioned in the educational literature as an influence on pupils feeling and achievement, on administration and budget of schools. It is on this note that this work therefore seeks to investigate classroom variables and teaching of integrated science in secondary schools.

 

1.2   Statement of the problem   

Integrated science is the foundation of all the science subjects in the educational system. Therefore, the performance of students in this important subject should be as high as possible.

Moreover, a cursory look at science classroom today indicates that they are not near what they should be as they are general lack of laboratory materials and equipment/roofs. Observations and reports have shown that success or high academic achievement of students in this subject has become a herculean task to accomplish in recent times due to these inadequate.

Essien (2012) reported poor performance of students in this important subject. This poor performance of students has attracted much concern by educational stakeholder. Classroom variables and teaching of integrated science in secondary schools.

 

Soyinka (2012) observed that the decline in the academic performance of students and said that academic standard had fallen drastically and needs destructive. It is therefore necessary to find out the causes of such poor performance in our junior secondary schools.

Though these poor performance have been attributed to a lot of indicators such as school factors, family variable, classroom variables etc. Therefore, it is against this poor academic performance that this study seeks to examine classroom variables and teaching of integrated science in secondary schools.

 

1.3   Purpose of the study      

The general purpose of this study was to examine classroom variables and teaching of integrated science in secondary schools. Specifically, the study sought to:

(i)     Examine the impact of class-size on the teaching of integrated science.

(ii)    Examine the effect of classroom facilities on the teaching of integrated science.

 

1.4   Significance of the Study 

The findings of this study will be useful in the following ways:   

(i)    Firstly, it will provide a conducive teaching and learning environment for students and teachers

(ii)    Secondly, policy makers shall find the findings of this study useful in deciding on rightful class-size in our schools. Classroom variables and teaching of integrated science in secondary schools.

(iii)    Furthermore, government will see the need to improve/promote more classrooms.

(iv)  Lastly, educational stakeholders will also see the need to provide more classroom facilities.

 

1.5   Research Questions

The following research questions were formulated to guide the study:

(i)     To what extent does class-size impact on the teaching of integrated science?

(ii)    To what extent does classroom facilities affect the teaching of integrated science ?

 

Definition of Terms  

The following terms are defined as they apply to the study.

Classroom Variables: These are those factors in the classroom which influence the implementation of educational curriculum.

Class-Size: In brief, this refers to an educational tools that can be used to describe the average number of students per class in a school.

Classroom Facilities: These are the tools available in the classroom which help in the smooth achievement of lesson objectives.

 

Conclusion

Findings from this study revealed that a classroom variable is an important factor in the achievement of the educational objectives.

Ikemesit

Ikemesit Akpan is my name. I am a Nigerian author. I work with projectboss.com.ng. I'm a researcher and a writer of academic research. ikemesitetukapan20233@gmail.com

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