CLASS SIZE AND PUPILS ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN BASIC SCIENCE

CLASS SIZE AND PUPILS ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN BASIC SCIENCE
CLASS SIZE AND PUPILS ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN BASIC SCIENCE

CLASS SIZE AND PUPILS ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN BASIC SCIENCE

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Cover page

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgements

Abstract

 

CHAPTER ONE – INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

1.2 Statement of the problem

1.3 Purpose of the Study

1.4 Research Hypotheses

 

1.5 Research questions

1.6 Significance of the Study

1.7 Delimitation of the Study

1.8 Limitation of the study

1.9 Operational Definition of Terms

 

CHAPTER TWO –REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

CHAPTER THREE – RESEARCH METHOD 

3.1    Research design

3.2    The Study Area

3.3    Population of the Study

 

3.4    Sample and Sampling Technique

3.5    Instrument for Data Collection

3.6    Method of Data Collection

3.7    Method for Data Analysis

 

CHAPTER FOUR: DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION

  OF FINDINGS

4.1    Presentation of the Results

4.1.1 Research Hypothesis One

4.1.2 Research Hypothesis One

4.1.3 Research Hypothesis Three

4.2    Discussion of Findings

 

CHAPTER FIVE – SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1    Summary

5.2    Recommendations

5.3    Conclusion

 

References                      

Appendixes

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background to the Study

Class size is an educational concept that refers to the average number of pupils per class in a school. It is an instrument used in education to describe the number of pupils per class in a school setting. Moreover, it is the total number of pupils in a class at a given time. In brief, class size can be described as the number of pupils per teacher in a class. It is a tool that can be used to measure the performance of the educational system.

In the educational setting, class size is viewed from different perspectives. This can be classified into three (3) main sizes which is the large class size, average class size and the small class size.

The aforementioned class sizes are what is prevalent in our various primary schools, especially the public primary schools, where the issue of free and compulsory education has caused our various public primary schools to be overcrowded. Undeniably, most of the increase in population does not correspond with the teachers’ enrollment. This shows that there is a qualitative growth and decline in the aspect of the educational system.

 

CLASS SIZE AND PUPILS ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT IN BASIC SCIENCE

Furthermore, according to Okoro (2022), class size in primary schools ranges between 30 to 35 pupils per class. He argued that thirty-five pupils per class is uneconomical as they do not make full use of space, and teaching materials. It is pertinent to note that average class size influence the cost of education while capital cost could be reduced by increasing the average class size in schools.

 

Nwadini (2019), stressed that the higher the class size, the lower the cost of education. He contended however that the lower the class size; the better for educational growth and improvement in the facilities.

Emphatically, class size can really affect the academic performance of pupils; this is because when the class size of a particular school is large, the performance of the pupils will be different from other class size. Indeed, the academic achievement of pupils in a small class size will not be the same with that of an average class size.

 

Moreover, in terms of academic performance, the Organization of Economic Co-operation Development (OECD, 2021), gave four criteria that could be used to asses performance as a tool in the measurement of output. Thus, these criteria include the rate of progress of pupils through the system on the performance of pupils in the terminal examination, the facilities in the schools and the range of the subjects offered in the curriculum. The number of number of pupils in a class has the potential to affect how much is learned in a number of different ways. Thus, for example, it could affect how pupils interact with each other and the level of social engagement.

Class size could also affect the teacher’s allocation of time, effective class supervision and distribution of scare learning materials. Teacher may be effective in using different methods of teaching and class work assessment when they have smaller classes. For example, they may encourage more feedback from pupil’s oral and written work. Therefore, this is possible in a class where class size is manageable.

To have an effective academic achievement in Basic Science, the class size in which these pupils are taught must be put into consideration as to whether the class size is large, average or small. However, this study is conducted to determine how class size influence academic achievement of pupils in Basic Science in Nsit Ubium Local Government Area.

 

1.2    Statement of the Problem

The main problem of this study is low performance of pupils in Basic Science in primary schools. As the school population increases, class size increases, the performance becomes an issue. Without reservation, class size has become a phenomenon often mentioned in the educational literature as it has influence on pupils’ academic achievement in many school subjects including Basic Science.

It is also an administrative decision over which teachers have little or no control. In fact, with exception of a few, many studies have reported that under ideal situation, class size itself appears to be an important factor. The school population explosion also gives the educational stakeholders a state of concern because one can not really give the actual constituent of a small, average and large class. Therefore, the study is undertaken to examine the influence of class size on pupils’ academic achievement in Basic in primary schools.

 

1.3    Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study has been to examine class size and pupils academic achievement in Basic Science.

Specifically, the study sought to examine the following:

  1. Determine the effect of small and large class size on pupils’ academic achievement in Basic Science.
  2. Assess the effect of average and large class size on pupils’ academic achievement in Basic Science.

 

1.4    Significance of the Study

The findings of this study would be significant to the following set of individuals:

  1. The pupils’ understand the essence of cooperating with their teachers in a large class size in order to achieve maximum academic achievement.
  2. Also, the findings of this study will help teachers in managing the class size to achieve maximum academic excellence among the pupils.
  3. To other researcher, it will serve as a reference material, in case of further research.

 

1.5    Research Hypotheses

                  The following null hypotheses were formulated for the study:

  1. There is no significant difference in pupils’ academic achievement in Basic Science from small and large class size.
  2. There is no significant difference in pupils’ academic achievement in Basic Science from average and large class size.

 

Definition of Terms

Class Size: This refers to the number of pupils being taught by individual teacher in a classroom.

Large Class Size: The number of pupils above 35 in a class.

Small Class Size: In brief, the total number of pupils below 30 in a given classroom.

Average Class Size: The number of pupils between 30 and 35 in a given classroom.

Academic Achievement: In brief, the outcome of teaching and learning acquired by individuals. Thus, it is measured in terms of test, assessment and examination scores.

 

Conclusion

From the results, it can be seen that the larger the class size of pupils being taught the less the performance of the pupils in Basic Science. There is therefore, the need to make the number of pupils to be taught in the Basic Science classes to be moderate so that the teacher can be able to manage the class effectively and be able to give individual attention to pupils who may have problem of assimilating the concepts of what has been taught.

Based on the objectives and findings of the study, the following conclusions were drawn:

  1. There is a significant difference in pupils’ academic achievement in Basic Science between small and large class size.
  2. There is a significant difference in pupils’ academic achievement in Basic Science between average and large class size.

 

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