Research Proposals



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Title Page





Table of Contents


1.1     Background to the Study

1.2     Statement of the Problem

1.3     Purpose of the Study

1.4     Significance of the Study

1.5     Research Questions


1.6     Research Hypotheses

1.7     Scope/Limitation of the Study

1.8     Definition of Terms




3.1     Research Design

3.2     Area of the Study

3.3     Population of the Study

3.4     Sample and sampling Technique

3.5     Research Instrument

3.6     Validity of the Instrument


3.7     Reliability of the Instrument

3.8     Administration of the Instrument

3.9     Scoring of Instrument

3.10   Method of Data Analysis



4.1     Presentation of Results

4.2     Discussions of Findings


5.1     Summary

5.2     Recommendations

5.3     Conclusion

5.4     Suggestions for further studies






1.1 Background to the Study

Undeniably, class attendance serves as a fundamental aspect of academic engagement, providing students with opportunities for direct interaction with course material, instructors, and peers. Moreover, this interaction is widely believed to positively influence students’ learning outcomes.

Numerous studies such as (Romero & Carillo, 2017; Moore, 2023) have consistently suggested a strong correlation between regular class attendance and academic achievement. Higher attendance rates often correspond with better performance on assessments, higher grades, and increased overall understanding of course content.

The impact of class attendance on academic performance can be attributed to several factors. Attending classes allows students to benefit from direct explanations of concepts, participate in discussions, and engage in activities or exercises that reinforce learning.



Additionally, active participation in the classroom setting facilitates better comprehension, retention of information, and the opportunity for immediate clarification of doubts. Moreover, consistent attendance often signals a level of commitment and dedication to the learning process. In fact, it reflects a student’s conscientiousness, responsibility, and proactive approach to their education, which can positively influence academic success (Manburge, 2023).

Class attendance is an important yardstick used in measuring the level of academic seriousness of students in secondary schools. Students can attend school regularly for the fear of discipline from their parents yet, do not participate or attend classes during lessons.


In our secondary schools precisely, the classroom is where teaching – learning process takes place formally within the school system. Hence, in the study of Chemistry which is one of the subjects that has a large content and coverage; class attendance should be mandatory (Lin and Chen, 2016).

According to Durden and Elis (2023), upon the disciplinary measures, spelt out by the parents, teachers and the government against poor class attendance, Students still find it pleasing to stay away from attending class during lesson even when they are aware of the negative effects of absenteeism from the class.  The best performing student in Chemistry may drop below average when the attendance in class drops.

Due to the nature of Chemistry, students must go to their teacher so that they will be guided for effective studies and that can only take place in the classroom.  It is not advisable for any Chemistry practical to be carried out by any learner except the teacher is there to guide. Therefore, this research work considered class attendance and students academic performance in chemistry in secondary schools. It is of special effect to Chemistry since the subject is more of practical than theory.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

When there is any observable backward achievement in an educational system, it is notice that there is some faults in the system either partially or wholly. Moreover, according to National Policy of Education (NPE, 2014), education in Nigeria should be child centered. This means that student or learner is a major component of any educational system. Consequently, academic performance of students is an important tool used in measuring the achievable objectives of any academic or educational system.

Though, government, educational administrators, manager and the teachers as well have done all they could to raise the standard of academic performance of students, still, its not encouraging. Hence, this gives rise to the following questions;

  • Has class attendance any influence on the students’ academic performance?
  • Could punctuality to class improve academic performance of students?

These form the main issues in this project. Therefore, this research work considered class attendance and students academic performance in chemistry in secondary schools.


1.3  Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to carefully examine class attendance and students academic performance in chemistry in secondary schools. Specifically, the important variables that are to be studied here are stated below;

  • The effect of careless attitude of students to class attendance on academic performance.
  • The influence of absenteeism on students’ academic performance.
  • Impact of class attendance on academic performance of students in Chemistry in Secondary Schools.


1.4  Significance of the study

The industrial manpower of this nation depends on the study of Chemistry. If we continue to be quiet over the drastic fall of educational standard of this nation, this may result in a serious lack of manpower to manage our natural resources, hence; hampering the economic growth of the nation.

This study will therefore find out the extent to which class attendance affect academic performance of students.

Furthermore, government, school administrators, managers, teachers, parents and non – governmental bodies will find the result of this study useful for improving the academic performance of students in Chemistry in Secondary Schools.

Lastly, the information gathered here will be of importance to curriculum designers in Chemistry for Secondary School students.


1.5     Research Questions

  1. Does class attendance have any impact on the students’ academic performance in Chemistry in Secondary Schools?
  2. Could careless attitude towards class attendance have any effect on the students’ academic performance in Chemistry in secondary school?
  3. Can absenteeism from class influence the academic performance of students in Chemistry in Secondary Schools?


1.6     Research Hypotheses

To response to the above research question, the following hypotheses were structured below in null form.

1        There is no significant difference in academic performance between students with high attendance rate and those with low attendance rate.

2        There is no significant relationship between class attendance and the academic performance of students in Chemistry in Secondary Schools.

3        There is no significant relationship between absenteeism and academic performance of students.


Scope/Limitation of the study

The scope of this study is not broad enough due to some set backs encountered on the process of making this study and hence, limit its focus on the class attendance and students’ academic performance in Chemistry in secondary Schools. The study covers public secondary schools only. Due to some constraints, the coverage of this study is restricted to only senior secondary two students (SSII).


Definition of Terms 

Class: In brief, a place where a group of students can meet at a regular schedule time to study the same subject.

Attendance:   the number of times at which a person or persons is/are present in any event.

Academic Performance: This refers to the scores or marks made by students in schools after the administration of terminal examinations.

Student(s): In brief, students as it is used here simply refers to the individual or

group of individuals who undergo studies in secondary schools.



Based on the findings and data analysis, the following conclusions were drawn:

  • The academic performances of most of the students who study Chemistry in secondary schools depend much on the level of attendance to classes.
  • absenteeism do contribute so much to the failure of students who study  Chemistry in secondary schools
  • The academic performance of students in Chemistry will drop below average when student’s attendance in class drops.
  • Classroom is where the heart of the teacher is revealed towards the choice of questions to be set in test and examinations; hence, students should not miss classes.


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Joselyn Nya

My Name is Joselyn Nya A Publisher in Project Boss Team. I'm a Nigerian I'm a graduate/Educational Researcher. Project Boss Team. We are the best for Project materials and project writing services. Email:

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