Research Proposals



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Title Page





Table of Contents


1.1    Background to the Study

1.2    Statement of the Problems

1.3    Purpose of the Study

1.4    Significance of the Study

1.5    Research Hypotheses

1.6    Delimitation of the Study

1.7    Limitation of the Study

1.8    Operational Definition of Terms



2.1    Concept of Child Abuse

2.2    Child Physical Abuse and Academic Performance of

Students in Secondary schools

2.3    Child Sexual Abuse and Academic Performance

of Students in Secondary schools

2.4    Emotionally Abuse Students’ Academic Performance

2.5    Summary of Literature Review



3.1    Research Area

3.2    Research Design

3.3    Population for the study

3.4    Sample and Sampling Technique

3.5    Instrumentation


3.6    Validation of Instruments

3.7    Reliability of the instrument

3.8    Administration of the instrument

3.9    Method of Data Analysis




4.1    Data Presentation

4.2    Discussion of Findings




5.1    Summary

5.2    Recommendations

5.3    Conclusion

5.4    Suggestion for further Study





The study investigated Child Abuse and Students’ Academic Performance in Social Studies in Secondary Schools in Mkpat Enin Local Government Area. The population for the study was 987 Junior Secondary two students in the 2016/2017 academic session. Two hundred Junior Secondary two students were randomly selected in Mkpat Enin Local Government Area for the study. Three hypotheses were formulated and tested. A survey research design was adopted for the study.

Child Abuse and Students Academic Performance Questionnaire (CASAPQ) and Social Studies Achievement Test were used as the instruments for data collection. Data analysis was done using independent statistical technique. Findings showed that there is a significant difference between child physical, sexual and emotional abuse significantly influence students’ academic performance in social studies in secondary schools in Mkpat Enin Local Government Area.

Therefore, based on these findings, it is recommended that Government should make it compulsory in every school that sex education is taught as part of their curriculum from secondary schools to university level. This will to check unwanted or premarital pregnancies. Since hawking is the most common form of child abuse, the government and non-governmental organization should educate parents on the dangers of allowing their children to hawk. It was therefore concluded that child abuse influence the academic performance of students in secondary schools especially in the formative age.




1.1   Background to the Study

Undeniably, child abuse and its’ consequences which is the unjust treatment given to a child which disturb the child’s development process. Moreover, it is a practice whereby children are battered, deprived of some basic needs in the home and at school. However, the saying that the child is the father of the man recognizes the fact that the quality of today’s child will determine the quality of tomorrow’s man (Akpan, 2023).

In fact, child abuse is not a strange phenomenon in our society. There is no safe place for children anymore because the home, school, street, religious houses and market are all possible places for child abuse. Also, a child can be abuse by siblings, parents, teachers, guardians and so-called mentors. In brief, child abuse is any form of maltreatment given to a child.


According to Ugure (2023) child abuse occur when elderly person causes harm, injury, risk or death to a child by their actions. Harmful behaviour from parents, older people and care-givers which can be intentionally or unintentionally causes a child to be abuse. To control the way children are abuse, the Child Protection Right Acts 1999 was promulgated making child abuse a punishable act under the law in Nigeria by the Child Protection Agency (Lazarus, 2014).

According to Edem (2015), the attitude of school age children roaming in the street during school hours hawking goods, washing cars, begging for food amongst others is observed with dismay. Therefore, these activities are deprivation of the children’s right to education.



Apart from that, they are warned not to return with unsold goods, based on these girls turn to being indiscriminate in the choice of sexual partners and boys turn to stealing in order to make the money for their mistress/masters as the case may be. In this process, some children are killed and others may run into cars when crossing road.


However, education of the child in this condition becomes the victim of economic down turn the nation for those that attend school, many are hawking and pushing wheelbarrow, car wash as part time job to raise the money for daily needs while others feed s and cloth the family through the ventures. As a result of this the author added that the cumulative influence of these activities may result in poor academic performance as its consequences.

Furthermore, Egbor (2012), a child in the southern states in Nigeria is a person between the age of 0-14 years and in the northern states between 0-12 years.

However, according to the 1999 Nigerian amended constitution, a child is a person who is below the age of 18 years that is a person who is below legal age of responsibility. Therefore, child abuse is a type of physical or mental injury or maltreatment of a person who is regarded as a child. This definition has expanded considerably to include more than just the beaten and sexually abuse child.


Also, it extends to any condition injurious to child’s physical or emotional health that has been inflicted by parents, guardians or any care giver and school mates. The situation should be that of intentional inflicting of injuries other than accidental means like suffering harm by reasons of consequences, malnutrition or deformity which threaten his/her survival.

According to Chucks (2013), the abuse of children influence the overall make-up of the child’s future as well as performance of the child in the school and in the society at large. It was therefore, on this background that the researcher focused on investigating into child abuse and students’ academic performance in Social Studies in Secondary schools with the aim of providing possible solution.


1.2   Statement of the Problems

The world today is undergoing major transformation; global transformations are multidimensional affecting the technological, economic, social, cultural and political development of human communities particularly those of developing societies like Nigeria. Education in the generic and global context is a strategic instrument for social and economic transformation.


The focus of education system all over the world is the development of human capital required to meet present and future challenges of globalization and knowledge economy (Dike, 2023). This development is evidenced on the academic performance of students in schools in the area.

Unfortunately, it is a largely accepted fact that abused and neglected children are at higher risk for lower academic performance. Chucks (2013) asserted on the foregoing that children who have suffered from neglect exhibit lower academic performance as maltreatment in the early years of life nearly triples a child’s likelihood of having academic problems and are far likely to drop out of school before completing high school. This motivated the researcher to ask, could child abuse influence the academic performance of students in secondary schools?

In view of providing answer to this question, this study becomes necessary. Similarly, the researcher personally observed that children are found  hawking in the streets, begging for food, been beaten at home and in the schools and working in the school farms during school hours making them to spend time outside  the classroom more than the time spend in the classroom learning.


1.3   Purpose of the Study

The purpose of the study was to investigate child abuse and students’ academic performance in social studies in secondary schools. Specifically, the study sought to:

  • Examine the effect of Child Physical Abuse on students’ academic performance in social studies in secondary schools.
  • Examine the influence of Child Sexual Abuse on students’ academic performance in social studies in secondary schools.
  • Examine the influence of Child Emotional Abuse on students’ academic performance in social studies in secondary schools.


1.4   Significance of the Study

The findings of this study will be of great significance to parents and guardians, teachers, government, educational planners and school counselors in the following ways:

  • To the parents and guardians, the findings of this study will enable them to have the knowledge and skills to study their children very well to know their right from left. Also to have alternative ways of child rearing without abusing them.


  • Secondly, to the teachers, the study will help them to develop critical and creative mind in the selection of instructional strategies which will motivate the students in the teaching/learning process.
  • In addition, to the government, the study will help them to understand the various forms of child abuse prevalence and proffered ways for fighting them.
  • The study will help educational planners to understand what constitute child abuse and its consequences so that they know where and how to start combating it.
  • To the school counselors, the study will provide useful information to them for the effective counseling of both parents and students on the consequences of child abuse.


1.5   Research Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study in line with objectives of the study:

  • There is no significant difference between Child Physical Abuse and students’ academic performance in social studies in secondary schools.
  • There is no significant difference between Child Sexual Abuse and students’ academic performance in social studies in secondary schools.
  • There is no significant difference between Child Emotional Abuse and students’ academic performance in social studies in secondary schools.


1.7   Limitation of the Study

                The study faced several challenges which encompassed:

  • Lack time due to the time frame allotted for this work by the school authority for the researcher to complete and submit the report of the study.
  • Financial constraints in terms of purchasing and processing of materials use for the study. The insufficiency of funds could not help the researcher to cover wider scope on the topic.


1.8    Operational Definition of Terms

                   The following terms were defined as used in the study:

Child Abuse: In brief, this is the deprivation of child care to a young person which distorts his/her development sequence. It may include physical, emotional and child sexual abuse as used in the study.

Child Physical Abuse: This is when physical injury is being inflicted on a child which causes the child harms. It includes acts like beating, biting, throwing, punching, kicking, slapping, burning, strangling and pinching.


Child Sexual Abuse: This is forcefully having sexual activity with a child against his/her wish. It includes behaviour such as rape, incest, oral sex, touching a child sexual organ and showing phonograph to a child.

Child Emotional Abuse: This occurs when a child’s emotions, social life and intellect is being tampered with.

Academic Performance: This is the grade of students in examination or continuous assessment.



In conclusion, it can be said that a lot of conscious findings were made and deduced from the study. The findings show hence, parents and poor financial background lead to child abuse. This is why the children are bound to be badly affected. The findings also show that a child with behavioural problem is bound to attract hatred and maltreatment from the parents.


Unwanted pregnancy produces children who are abuse. This is because provisions were not made for the extension care of the children. Thus they will bear to face hardship.

However, it was also discovered that there is the existence of child abuse. These included emotionally abuse, physically abuse and sexually abuse children. It is also discovered that many children who are abuse are affected emotionally and psychologically. Thus, this affects their academic performance in school.


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Joselyn Nya

My Name is Joselyn Nya A Publisher in Project Boss Team. I'm a Nigerian I'm a graduate/Educational Researcher. Project Boss Team. We are the best for Project materials and project writing services. Email:

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