Research Proposals

BIRTH ORDER AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF STUDENTS IN BUSINESS STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

BIRTH ORDER AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF STUDENTS IN BUSINESS STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

 

CHAPTER ONE –       INTRODUCTION

1.1    Background of the study

1.2    Statement of the problem

1.3    Purpose of the study

1.4    Significance of the study

1.5    Research Questions

1.6    Delimitation of the Study

1.7    Operational Definition of Terms

 

CHAPTER TWO        –       LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1    The Concept of Birth Order

2.2    First and Second Birth Order and Academic

Achievement

2.3    Middle and Last Birth Order and Academic Achievement

of Students in Secondary Schools

 

CHAPTER THREE     –       RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1    Research Area

3.2    Research Design

3.3    Population of the Study

3.4    Sample and Sampling Techniques

3.5    Instrument for Data Collection

 

3.6    Validation of Instrument

3.7    Administration of the Instrument

3.8    Method of Data Analysis

 

CHAPTER FOUR – DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

Discussion of Findings

 

CHAPTER FIVE        –       SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1    Summary

5.2    Recommendations

5.3    Conclusion

5.4    Suggestion for Further Studies

References

 

ABSTRACT

The study examined birth order and academic achievement of students in Business studies in Secondary schools. The population for the study consisted of 1976 Junior Secondary Three (JS3) students. Out of this number, three hundred Business Studies were randomly selected from four selected public schools in the area as sample size. The Business Studies JS2 Promotion Examination Result (BSPER) and a questionnaire were the instruments for data collection. Data collected were analyzed using descriptive percentage statistical method.

Findings revealed that there is a significant difference in academic achievement of students of first, second, middle and last birth order students in Business Studies in Secondary Schools. Thus, this is because firstborn children performed more better than every other siblings.

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1   Background of the Study

Every member of the society belongs to a family. It is incontrovertible that the secondary school students like every mortal come from a home. Some come from extremely poor homes while others well- to-do parents. There are also those that come from a polygamous family, while others come from a monogamous family. Whichever category a learner belongs. It has either positive or negative effect on his or her academic life and bring with him/her to formed schooling a way of functioning which carries the imprint of him/her upbringing at home.

Maduakonam (2023) asserted that the home lays the foundation for goals and motivation early in the life of a child. A child first learns what is important through the values or goals that are considered most important in the society by emulating the parents.

 

BIRTH ORDER AND ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF STUDENTS IN BUSINESS STUDIES IN SECONDARY SCHOOLS

Children most often absorb the values of the parents but even if they reject them, they will b e deeply influenced by them. Ezewu (2022) opined that the preponderance of delinquents among school population were from polygamous homes. The author also added that disciplined and in disciplined behaviours among children is a function of the homes.

However, it is a common knowledge that a number of home variables discussed above have a significant influence on the education of the child. For instance, in spite of the government policies on family planning, a number of parents are still producing an uncontrollable number of children.

Such parents, in this era of global economic recession may not be able to cater for the socio-economic and educational and educational needs of the family members. It is indisputable that priority attention will be given to the education of first born. Whereas, education of middle and last children suffers set back. When this happens, the disadvantaged children (middle and last born children) are often seen lacking in basic educational materials and some dropping out of school when parents cannot afford their fees.

Furthermore, people are intrigued by the fact that children of the same family behave differrently although they were raised in the same environment, such as neighbourhood, and share the same genetic pools from both of their parents.

On top of behaviours, siblings do differ in terms of personality characteristics, intelligence and others. Firstborns are always described as being responsible, high achievers and perfectionist. Whereas, lastborns and only child are always described as the baby of the house and mostly spoiled kids. As a result, those differences among siblings have attracted the attention of researchers over the past decades.

Ebukiba (2023) stated that the home background of his educational performance in school. The author also maintained that the home is the most important primary group and the smallest social unit in the society. It is also biological, social and universal in the sense that no human society could possibly exist or has existed without some forms of home organization. This is because parents, siblings and family members help to shape the character, behavioural pattern and personality of young children.

 

1.2   Statement of the problem

In junior secondary schools students have been performing so poor in most of their school subjects including Business studies. This poor performance leads to problems among teachers, parents and even, the students involved (Ebere, 2014). This unsatisfied performance among students in this subject (Business Studies) motivated many researchers to investigate on the factors responsible for the poor academic achievement of students.

Fraza, Welberg and Hattle, (2013) pointed out that academic achievement of Junior Secondary School students can be attributed to many factors as students have many responsibilities and are from different family background, different order of birth as well as different family structures.

Dick (2014) observed that birth order affect the academic achievement of students in Agricultural Science in Secondary Schools. This motivated the researcher to carry out this research  to investigate whether birth order also affects the academic achievement of students in Business Studies in secondary schools in Ikot Ekpene Local Government Area.

 

1.3   Purpose of the study

The main purpose of this study was to examine the effect of birth order on academic achievement of students in Business studies in Secondary Schools in Ikot Ekpene Local Government Area. Specifically, the study intends to:

  1. Compare the academic achievement of students of first order birth and second order birth in Business Studies in Secondary schools.
  2. Examine whether differences exist between the academic achievement of students of first birth, middle birth and last birth orders in Business Studies in Secondary Schools.

 

1.4   Significance of the study

Findings of this study will be of increase benefit in the following ways:

  1. It will help parents to realize the need to embrace the family planning policy in producing minimum of children which they can cater for and providing meaningful education for them.
  2. It will also help teachers to adopt instructional strategies that will be favourable to all students irrespective of their birth order.
  3. This findings will also enable educational administrators to adopt administrative process that will make learning of Business studies effective and understandable to students irrespective of their birth order.
  1. This findings will also add to the existing body interest and expanding the scope of the study.
  2. The findings of this study will as a reference manual for future researchers on the related topic.

 

1.5   Research Questions

  1. Could there be any significant difference in the academic achievement of students of first and second birth order in Business studies in secondary school?
  2. Could there be any significant difference in the academic achievement of students of middle and last birth order in business studies in secondary school?

 

Operational Definition of Terms

Birth Orders: The position of birth as in first, second, middle and last born.

Academic Achievement: The score of students in test and examination base on taught lesson.

Business Studies: Business Studies is the management and organization of human and financial resources, for effective productivity and creativity with the ultimate aim of achieving the goals of the Business Organization which is generation of profit.

 

Conclusion

Based on findings of the study, it is therefore concluded that birth order such as first, second, middle and last birth orders influence the students’ academic achievement in business studies in secondary schools. Thus, this is because education is the formation of character comes as the learner interact with his/her environment which he family is one of the component of the environment involves the parents, siblings amongst others of which the learner associate his/herself in the course of learning.

Peter Hezekiah

I am Peter Hezekiah, a Nigerian. A graduate of Economics/Education. I'm the Editor in projectboss.com.ng (A online company that deals with writing of final year project and provision of project materials of any topic to final year project students). My personal email is lawsonpeter10@gmail.com. My personal number; +2347068634102

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