Project

BACTERIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF WATER STORAGE CANS USED BY PRIMARY SCHOOLS PUPILS

BACTERIOLOGICAL ASSESSMENT OF WATER STORAGE CANS USED BY PRIMARY SCHOOLS PUPILS

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Cover page

Title page

Declaration

Certificate

 

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Abstract

Table of Content

List of tables

CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of the study

1.2       Statement of problem

1.3       Objectives of the study

1.4       Significance of the study

 

1.5       Research question

1.6       Scope of study

1.7       Limitations of the study

1.8       Definition of terms

  

CHAPTER TWO: REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

3.1       Apparatus and equipment

3.2       Chemical reagents

3.3       Sample collection

3.4       Study area

 

3.5       Preparation of Media

3.6       Procedure for preparation of nutrient agar

3.7       Procedure for preparation of MacConkey agar

3.8       Inoculation of Sample

3.9       Biochemical Test

 

3.9.1    Catalase test

3.9.2    Coagulase test

3.10     Gram Staining

3.11     Determination of water quality parameters

3.11.1  PH

 

CHAPTER FOUR: RESULT AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

4.1       Results

4.2       Discussion of findings

 

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1       Summary

5.2       Conclusion

5.3       Recommendation

References

Appendices

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of the Study

The bacteriological assessment of water storage cans used by primary school pupils is a critical area of study due to the potential health risks associated with contaminated water. Without a doubt, water storage cans are commonly used in primary schools to provide drinking water for pupils.

 

However, these cans can become contaminated with bacteria, posing a risk to the health of the pupils who consume the water. Moreover, bacteriological assessment involves the examination of water samples for the presence of bacteria and other microorganisms that may indicate contamination (Freeman, 2023).

Undeniably, water is essential to all living things. According to Batmangheligj (1998), “25% of the human body is made up of solid matter while the remaining 75% is made up of water”. In fact, safe water is colourless, odourless, tasteless and free from faecal contamination (Ezeugwunneet al.2009).

 

Estimation by World Health Organization (WHO) states that about 3 million children below 5 years of age from developing countries die every year due to diarrhoea diseases by drinking polluted water. The bacteriological assessment of water storage cans used by primary schools pupils.

 

Furthermore, a review of studies carried by the World Bank gives the evidence that incidence of water borne disease are related to the quality and quantity of water and sanitation available to users. (Iken et al., 2008) highlights that in a contaminated water organism especially of the enterobacteriaccence group e.g; Escherichia coli, Enterbacter, Salmonella typhi are highly contaminated in water. In order to prevent the outbreak of the water, there are needs to preserve and treat water supplied to towns and cities (Cabell, 2007).

Similar studies by Momba and Kaleni (2002), Momba and Notshe (2003) have also shown that water stored in plastic based materials, are able to support more bacterial incorporation into biofilms on their interior surfaces than those made of metal based materials.

Their studies also revealed that plastic based containers have a greater affinity to support the incorporation of faecalcoliforms into biofilm structures. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the bacteriological assessment of water storage cans used by primary schools pupils.

 

1.2       Statement of Problem

Without reservation, in urban communities, drinking water are sourced from wells, springs, rainfall e.t.c. This water before taken is not given any form of treatment. Thus, these have caused the high rate of water borne diseases.

Ikeh et al (2018) explains that the outbreak of water borne diseases is alarming and have resulted to death of the infected individuals as a result of poor response by medical practitioners to these problems. He further states that an outbreak of water borne disease is gradually becoming an epidemic if adequate steps are not taken to combat it.

Apart from urban communities, people also in rural areas do not have good source of water as well as storage containers thereby making people such as primary pupils victims of the effect of drinking the water. The bacteriological assessment of water storage cans used by primary schools pupils.

Therefore, these statements prompt the need for an analysis to be conducted on the bacteriological assessment of water storage cans used by primary schools pupils.

 

1.3       Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study was to examine the bacteriological assessment of water storage cans used by primary schools pupils. Specifically, the study aimed:

  1. To attain the total bacterial count of the water storage cans.
  2. To determine the most preferable water storage cans that can be used by primary pupils to help lower the number of bacteria present in the cans.
  3. To determine the species of bacteria present in the water storage cans used by primary pupils.

 

1.4      Research Question

  1. What effect do different storage cans have on the health of primary pupils?
  2. How do we ensure that these storage cans are free by bacteria?
  3. Which storage can is most effective and preferable for storing of water?
  4. Which species of bacteria are present in the water storage cans?

 

1.5       Scope of Study

The study covers identification of bacteria organisms in water storage cans and also to determine the bacteria load of microorganisms in the sourced water.

 

Definition of Terms

Bacteria: Based on Wikipedia definition, bacterium is a type of biological cell, they constitute a large domain of prokaryotic microorganisms. Bacteria are microscopic, single-celled organisms that thrive in diverse environments. These organisms can live in soil, the ocean and inside the human gut.

Water: In brief, is an inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and colourless liquid substance, which is the main constituent of the Earth’s hydrosphere and the fluids of all known living organisms.

Storage: The action or method of storing something for future use.

Assessment: In brief, the act of evaluating.

Culture medium: culture medium is a solid, liquid or semi-solid designed to support the growth of a population of microorganisms or cells via the process of cell proliferation.

Microorganisms: Are organisms that are too small to be seen by the unaided eyes except through the microscope.

 

Conclusion

Based on the findings, the study clearly indicates that the water storage cans are contaminated by bacteria in the water stored in it which are gotten from different sources. And the water sample were highly influenced by other physical factors.

Hence the study strongly suggests proper treatment of water and regular washing of storage cans with detergents and clean water to disinfect any bacteria present in it to avoid adverse health effect among primary pupils.

 

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Peter Hezekiah

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