ANTIBIOGRAM OF SALMONELLA SPECIES ISOLATED FROM VEGETABLE

ANTIBIOGRAM OF SALMONELLA SPECIES ISOLATED FROM VEGETABLE

ANTIBIOGRAM OF SALMONELLA SPECIES ISOLATED FROM VEGETABLE

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title page

Declaration

Certification

Dedication

Acknowledgement

Abstract

Table of contents

 

CHAPTER ONE – INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of the Study

1.2       Statement of the Problem

1.3       Objective of the Study

1.4       Research Question

1.5       Significant of the Study

1.6       Scope of the Study

1.7       Limitation of the Study

 

CHAPTER TWO – REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

CHAPTER THREE – MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY

3.1       Materials

3.1.1    Equipment used

3.1.2    Reagents Used

3.1.3    Media Used

3.2       Methodology

3.2.1 Sample Collection

 

3.2.2    Preparation of Media

3.3       Isolated and Enumeration of Bacteria

3.4       Gram Staining

3.5       Biochemical Test

 

CHAPTER FOUR – RESULTS AND DISCUSSION OF THE FINDINGS

4.1       Microbial Load of the Sample (Total Viable Counts)

4.1.1    Identification and Characterization of the Isolate

4.2       Discussion of the Findings

 

CHAPTER FIVE – SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

5.1       Summary

5.2       Conclusion

5.3       Recommendation

References

 

CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background of the Study

Salmonella is a gram negative rods genus belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family. Moreover, within 2 species, Salmonella bongori and Samonellaenterica, over 2500 different serotypes or serovars have been identified to date (Su LH, Chiu CH 2007) Salmonella is a ubiquitous and hardy bacteria that can survive several weeks in a dry environment and several months in water.

While all serotypes can cause disease in humans, a few are host- specific and can reside in only one or a few animal species: for example, Salmonella enterica serotype Dublin in cattle and Salmonella enterica serotype Choleraesuis in pigs. When these particular serotypes cause disease in humans, it is often invasive and can be life-threatening. Most serotypes, however, are present in a wide range of hosts.

 

ANTIBIOGRAM OF SALMONELLA SPECIES ISOLATED FROM VEGETABLE

Typically such serotypes cause gastroenteritis, which is often uncomplicated and does not need treatment, but disease can be severe in the young, the elderly, and patients with weakened immunity. This group features Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis and Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, the “two most important serotypes of Salmonella transmitted from animals to humans in most parts of the world (Jantsch 2011)

In addition, salmonellosis is a disease caused by the bacteria Salmonella. Thus, it is usually characterized by acute onset of fever, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, nausea and sometimes vomiting. Antibiogram of salmonella species isolated from vegetable.

 

Moreover, the onset of disease symptoms occurs 6-72 hours (usually 12-36 hours) after ingestion of Salmonella, and ilness lasts 2-7 days. Indeed, symptoms of salmonellosis are relatively mild and patients will make a recovery without specific treatment in most cases.

However, in some cases, particularly in children and elderly patients, the associated dehydration can become severe and life-threatening. Although large Salmonella outbreaks usually attract media attention, 60-80% of all salmonellosis cases are not recognized as part of a known outbreak and are classified as sporadic cases, or are not diagnosed as such at all (Fàbrega, 2013). Therefore, the study aimed to examine the antibiogram of salmonella species isolated from vegetable.

 

1.2       Statement of the Problem

Undeniably, the burden of foodborne diseases is substantial: every year almost l in 10 people fall ill and 33 million of healthy life years are lost. Foodborne diseases can be severe especially for young children.

In fact, diarrhoeal diseases are the most common illnesses resulting from unsafe food, 550 million people falling ill each year, including 220 million children under the age of 5 years. Also, salmonella is 1 of the 4 key global causes of diarrhoea diseases. Base on this, the study therefore discuss the antibiogram of salmonella species isolated from vegetable.

 

1.3       Objective of the Study

The broad objective of this study was to determine the antibiogram of salmonella species isolated from vegetable. Specifically, objectives includes the following:

  1. To determine the Sources and transmission of salmonella species
  2. To determine the Detection, culture, and growth conditions of salmonella species
  3. To determine the Antibiotic sensitivity of salmonella species
  4. To determine the pathogenesis of salmonella species

 

1.4       Research Question

  1. What are the Sources and transmission of salmonella species?
  2. What are the methods of Detection, culture, and growth conditions of salmonella species?
  3. What is the pathogenesis of salmonella species?

 

1.5       Significance of the Study

This study has a great significant to every individual, it review the antibiotitic that can inhibit the growth of salmonella species. It also access the microorganisms associated with vegetables wash water.

 

 1.6       Scope of the Study

This tends to cover every aspect of salmonella species. However, it discuss on the isolation of salmonella species, and as well review the microorganisms associated with vegetables.

 

1.7       Limitation of the Study

Firstly, the use of low – fetch equipment was a limit to the scope of this experiment. Also the size of the sample population was also a limit to this research project due to the fact that not all the brand of fruit juice required was seen in the area of study and finally money was also an impediment to this research project; lack of huge amount for proper research. Antibiogram of salmonella species isolated from vegetable.

 

Conclusion

Once a culture is established, there are two possible ways to get an antibiogram; a semi-quantitative way based on diffusion (Kirby-Bauer method); small discs containing different antibiotics, or impregnated paper discs, are dropped in different zones of the culture on an agar plate, which is a nutrient-rich environment in which bacteria can grow.

Moreover, the antibiotic will diffuse in the area surrounding each tablet, and a disc of bacterial lysis will become visible. Since the concentration of the antibiotic was the highest at the centre, and the lowest at the edge of this zone, the diameter is suggestive for the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration, or MIC, (conversion of the diameter in millimeter to the MIC, in µg/ml, is based on known linear regression curves). Antibiogram of salmonella species isolated from vegetable.

Thus, a quantitative way based on dilution: a dilution series of antibiotics is established (this is a series of reaction vials with progressively lower concentrations of antibiotic substance). The last vial in which no bacteria grow contains the antibiotic at the Minimal Inhibiting Concentration.

 

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