A COMPARISON OF BOARDING AND NON-BOARDING SCHOOLS ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS

A COMPARISON OF BOARDING AND NON-BOARDING SCHOOLS ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS
A COMPARISON OF BOARDING AND NON-BOARDING SCHOOLS ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS

A COMPARISON OF BOARDING AND NON-BOARDING SCHOOLS ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS IN MATHEMATICS IN SENIOR SECONDARY SCHOOLS 

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page

Certification

Approval Page

Dedication

Acknowledgements

 

Table of Contents

List of Tables

List of Appendices

Abstract

CHAPTER ONE:     INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study

1.2       Statement of the Problem

1.3       Purpose of the Study

1.4       Research Questions

 

1.5       Hypotheses

1.6       Significance of the Study

1.7       Scope of the Study

1.8       Definition of Terms

 

CHAPTER TWO:    REVIEW OF LITERATURE

2.1       Theoretical Framework

2.2       Conceptual Review

2.3       Review of Empirical Studies

2.4       Summary of Literature Review

CHAPTER THREE: RESEARCH METHOD                                                                

3.1       Research Design

3.2       Area of the Study

3.3       Population of the Study

3.4       Sample and Sampling Technique

 

3.5       Instrumentation

3.5.1    Validation of the Instrument

3.5.2           Reliability of the Instrument

3.6       Procedure for Data Collection

3.7       Method of Data Analysis

 

CHAPTER FOUR:  RESULTS AND DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

4.1       Answering the Research Questions

4.2       Testing the Hypotheses

4.3       Summary of Findings

4.4       Discussion of Findings

 

CHAPTER FIVE: SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1       Summary

5.2       Educational Implications of the Findings

5.3       Conclusion

5.4       Recommendations

5.5       Limitations of the Study

5.6       Suggestions for further Study

References

Appendices

 

 CHAPTER ONE

INTRODUCTION

1.1       Background to the Study

Indeed, no two schools are alike. Schools, just like the people within them, have different characteristics. Moreover, education not only gives insight, but also grooms the personality, inculcate moral values, add knowledge and give skill to every learner in the society. However, this is in line with the idea of Battle and Machel (2023), indicating that in this era of globalisation and technological revolution, education is considered as the first step in every human endeavour. Thus, It plays a fundamental role in the development of human capital and is linked with an individual well-being and opportunities for better living.

Undeniably, the desire to meet the educational needs of the less privilege is now a major challenge to the educators over the past years. As such, to limit some of the major challenges in education, schools have to be provided with the needed conducive environment to promote academic attainment of the learners (Jenson, 2022).

 

Furthermore, Ale (2014) remarked that “mathematics is the backbone of knowledge”. It is also the pivot of all civilizations and technological development. These descriptions outlined the important accorded to mathematics as a key subject in the development of any nation.

 

A COMPARISON OF BOARDING AND NON-BOARDING SCHOOLS ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF STUDENTS

The types of school differences explored were areas in which a superintendent or principal may have some policy control, and where policy differences may have an effect on student’s academic outcome (Greenwald, 2010).

The type of school a child attends is very important in influencing educational outcomes. This is because schools are established for the purpose of teaching and learning. It is also more important that the teachers and learners are properly accommodated to facilitate the teaching and learning that goes on there irrespective of the school type (Alimi, 2009).

 

Again, it is a known fact that instructional setting represents a major vicinity or environment of a child and it is obvious that this influences his/her attitude to many things including academic achievement.

For over four decades, series of studies have suggested the importance of school as social environment of learning. Some of these studies examined school types and their attendant consequences on achievement of students in various states of the federation. The studies were intended to assist parents decide what type of school they should enrolled their wards (Mbakwe, 2010).

Buckingham (2015) in his opinion addressed that public, private, boarding and non boarding schools are different types of schools where learners can learn and achieve their educational goals and objectives. He further stressed that students from private schools are more likely to achieve higher end of school scores.

 

Studies have shown and found out that students that attends private schools are academically sound than students from public schools because they have good and qualified teachers, good infrastructures and conducive learning environment. In some instances, increased population of students especially in Mathematics has contributed to poor performance in Mathematics. Public schools on the other hand enroll more students than they can cope and that may have contributed in no small measure to poor performance of students compared to private schools.

The fact that boarding and non-boarding schools has its effect on students performance in Mathematics dates back from the pre-independent era when children came from the different homes to school (Rotimi, 2015).

 

Rotimi (2015) in assessing the academic progress of the boarding school students in the satellite newspaper claim that students who live in boarding houses learn to live together in peace and at the same time benefit from the boarding house masters’ instruction. Here, there is enough security both within and outside the school vicinity. But the reverse is the case in the other school type (non-boarding system).

Hedges and Hedberg (2009) stressed that the issue of students’ academic performance in school has posed a lot of concern to public, parents and the students. Most parents take pains in search of school environment that is favourable for their wards to obtain their secondary school education. A comparison of boarding and non-boarding schools on academic performance of students in mathematics in senior secondary schools.

Lawson (2011) noted that certain factors as well as school characteristics are responsible for academic performance of students in schools. These factors could result from the environment the students employ and used for learning. In any educational setting, school characteristics and facilities available are very important determinant of the child intellectual development. It is much reliable variance to students’ interest and academic performance in schools. The physical characteristics of the school have a variety of effects on teachers, students and the learning process.

 

Poor lighting, noise, high levels of carbon-dioxide in classrooms, and inconsistent temperatures make teaching and learning difficult. Poor maintenance and ineffective ventilation systems lead to poor health among students as well as teachers, which leads to poor performance and higher absenteeism rate (Frazier, 2016). These factors can adversely affect students’ behaviour and lead to higher levels of frustration among teachers, and poor learning attitude among students which affect their academic performance in Mathematics.

According to Wiseman (2015), there are abundance evidence of various aspects of the school types in which education is experienced and which have important influence in the students’ achievement in school. A school as a learning environment includes everything inside and outside the space which a child occupies and which in any way affects his behaviour, interest and performance during a particular learning routine.

 

Boarding school is a school where students are provided with accommodation to live in school hostel within the environment of the school during school term. Boarding schools could be full boarding or the mixture of both boarders and day students that attend the institution by day and return to their different houses after school hours. Day school is a school where all the students go for studies and return to their homes after school hours. Both boarding and day schools could either be privately or publicly owned.

 

According to Ngeno, Enose and Ayodo (2012), parents and guardians lack guiding principles on making informed decisions on the choice of schools amid limited financial resources. Researchers revealed that boarding schools gradually attain the status of providing systemic and quality education that can better students’ academic performance in Mathematics.

Lawson (2011) outlines some factors that determine school types to include school environment, classroom block, library, heat, ventilation, light, quietness, seating comfort, accessibility to facilities and supplies, building and others in the surrounding of the school. These factors are important since they may or may not increase child’s interest in learning as well as their academic performance in Mathematics.

 

However, when the school environment is harsh and not encouraging, the students become frustrated. Consequently, by this, the learning of any subject become boring and much time is wasted to enable the students follow the learning. Therefore, it was on this premise that this research is conducted to ascertain a comparison of boarding and non-boarding schools on academic performance of students in mathematics in senior secondary schools.

 

1.2 Statement of the Problem

It has been observed that students’ performance in secondary school Mathematics in both internal and external examinations has been low for some years now. This is a subject of great concern to students, parents and government despite their efforts.

Also, in Nigeria, the performance of students in Mathematics in senior secondary examinations has been a subject of controversy (WAEC Results, 2014-2018). It is noted that the quality of education not only depends on the teachers as reflected in the performance of their duties, but also in the effective coordination of the school.

 

This however, made some parents prefer that their children should remain in boarding schools for their secondary school education while others prefer that their children remain with them at home and attain non-boarding school throughout their secondary education. Thus, one question based on this issue is whether the performance of students in this subject (Mathematics) is based on gender?

Therefore, it was based on this that the researcher carried out the study focused on a comparison of boarding and non-boarding schools on academic performance of students in mathematics in senior secondary schools.

 

1.3       Purpose of the Study

The main purpose of this study is on a comparison of boarding and non-boarding schools on academic performance of students in mathematics in senior secondary schools. Specifically, the objectives of this study are to:

  1. compare the academic performance of students in Mathematics from boarding and non-boarding schools.
  2. compare the academic performance of male students in Mathematics from boarding and non-boarding schools.
  3. compare the academic performance of female students in Mathematics from boarding and non-boarding schools.

 

1.4       Research Questions

            The following research questions are formulated to guide the study:

  1. What is the mean difference in the academic performance of students in Mathematics from boarding and non-boarding schools?
  2. What is the mean difference in the academic performance of male students in Mathematics from boarding and non-boarding schools?
  3. What is the mean difference in the academic performance of female students in Mathematics from boarding and non-boarding schools?

 

1.5       Hypotheses

The following null hypotheses are formulated to guide the researcher in the study:

  • There is no significant difference between the academic performance of students in Mathematics from boarding and non-boarding schools.
  • There is no significant difference between the academic performance of male students in Mathematics from boarding and non-boarding schools.
  • There is no significant difference between the academic performance of female students in Mathematics from boarding and non-boarding schools.

 

1.6  Significance of the Study

The study which aimed at finding out the effect of boarding and non-boarding on academic performance of students is important to:

  1. Parents: This is because it will aid them to choose a better school type for their wards as this will aid to increase the academic achievement of the learners.
  2. Secondly, it is hoped that this study will help students in the choice of schools as it will enable them to see the effect of boarding school on the study of several subjects not in Mathematics only. A comparison of boarding and non-boarding schools on academic performance of students in mathematics in senior secondary schools 
  3. Thirdly, the findings from this study will help them to send the required and necessary facilities needed in secondary schools education setting irrespective of the school type (boarding, non-boarding, private or public school).
  4. Lastly, the study will provide database for future researchers who may wish to carryout similar study in the area of school type and studying environment.

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1.8       Definition of Terms

Boarding School: In brief, this is a type of educational institution which provides meals and lodging to students who have been surrendered by their parents or guardians to the care of the instructors at school.

Non-Boarding School: Is a type of educational institution where students have their regular classes but return home to their parents daily after school hours.

Academic Performance: In brief, this refers to the achievement of students in secondary schools in test or examinations.

Gender: This is the classification of the individual into either male or female.

 

Conclusion

From all that have been discussed in this study, it is imperative to note that the type of school attended by a child can mar or boost their academic achievement in many school subjects including Mathematics. The study concluded that students at boarding schools passed mathematics more than those at non boarding schools. A comparison of boarding and non-boarding schools on academic performance of students in mathematics in senior secondary schools 

 

The conditions at boarding schools enabled students to pass mathematics better than those at non boarding schools. The boarding schools were more equipped with better resources as compared to non boarding schools across all subjects because of more stable and significant sources of funding.

Based on the specific objectives of the study, the following conclusions were drawn:

  1. There is a significant difference in the academic performance of students in Mathematics from boarding and non-boarding schools.
  2. There is a significant difference in the academic performance of male students in Mathematics from boarding and non-boarding schools.
  3. There is a significant difference in the academic performance of female students in Mathematics from boarding and non-boarding schools.

 

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